Contemporary Terrorism Studies – Postgraduate Course Syllabus

Course Description

This advanced course examines the dynamics, characteristics, causes and effects of terrorism. It also provided insight into effective counter-terrorism tactics. Students of the advanced terrorism studies should receive the best possible transfer of knowledge through the highly intelligent framework of the courses.

Students will examine, compare and debate the merits of theories and key concepts of terrorism through in-depth discussion to develop a solid understanding of the different theoretical and practical perspectives. In each lecture, we place these theories and concepts in their historical context, show how they contribute to a better understanding of international and national security, and assess their strengths and weaknesses.

Applying the Aristotelian method of teaching, I will focus on developing both the intellectual and moral virtues of students. Intellectual virtues are character traits such as the ability to judge the truth and comprehend the nature of things, whereas moral virtues are habits of living that involve the whole person and include justice, temperance, prudence, and fortitude, which are characterised by desire and emotion.

In addition, I designed the course with the following implications in mind: to understand the diverse backgrounds of undergraduate students, to provide full support to non-native speakers in relation to academic English, and to engage the students in practical discussions and seminars. An inclusive curriculum implements policies and resources to ensure that all students are supported in their learning.

Learning Objectives and Outcomes

  • Analyse and apply diverse theoretical approaches to terrorism.
  • Examine critically the reasons for cooperation and conflict in international relations.
  • Engage in contemporary theoretical discussions.
  • Construct and defend theoretically sophisticated arguments regarding terrorism.
  • Learn to think and write critically about crucial debates in terrorism studies.
  • Effective communication in professional applications of contemporary terrorism studies.
  • Develop innovative ways of thinking about the practical implications of counterterrorism (Sahel, open-source intelligence, radicalization, right-wing terrorism, Islamic state). 

Reading Materials

Foundation texts

  1. Burke, P., Elnakhala, D. and Miller, S. (2021) Global Jihadist Terrorism. Edward Elgar Publishing. Available at:
  2. Ganor, B. (2021) Israel’s counterterrorism strategy: origins to the present. New York: Columbia University Press (Columbia studies in terrorism and irregular warfare).
  3. Kaunert, C., MacKenzie, A. and Léonard, S. (2022) The European Union as a Global Counter-Terrorism Actor. Edward Elgar Publishing. Available at:
  4. Miller, S., Henschke, A. and Feltes, J.F. (2021) Counter-Terrorism. Edward Elgar Publishing. Available at:
  5. Polizzi, D. (2021) Toward a Phenomenology of Terrorism: Beyond Who is Killing Whom. Cham: Springer International Publishing (Critical Criminological Perspectives). Available at:

Additionally, recommended readings based on scholarly articles are provided for each lecture to introduce students to academic analytical and critical thinking.

The quality of teaching, course content, and literature included reflects the advanced practice of worldwide recognised departments of politics and international relations.

Course Content

Lecture 1: Conceptualizing Terrorism

Core Required Reading

  1. Polizzi, D. (2021) Toward a Phenomenology of Terrorism: Beyond Who is Killing Whom. Cham: Springer International Publishing (Critical Criminological Perspectives). Available at:
  • What Comes Before
  • What’s in a Name: Constructing Terrorism
  • The Phenomenology of the Nomos
  1. Miller, S., Henschke, A. and Feltes, J.F. (2021) Counter-Terrorism. Edward Elgar Publishing. Available at:
  • The definition of terrorism
  1. Burke, P., Elnakhala, D. and Miller, S. (2021) Global Jihadist Terrorism. Edward Elgar Publishing. Available at:
  • Introduction to Global Jihadist Terrorism

Recommended Reading

  • Aven, T. and Guikema, S. (2015) ‘On the Concept and Definition of Terrorism Risk: Perspective’, Risk Analysis, 35(12), pp. 2162–2171. Available at:
  • Bar-Tal, D. (2007) ‘Sociopsychological Foundations of Intractable Conflicts’, American Behavioral Scientist, 50(11), pp. 1430–1453. Available at:
  • Bulley, D. (2008) ‘“Foreign” Terror? London Bombings, Resistance and the Failing State’, The British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 10(3), pp. 379–394. Available at:
  • Burgoon, B. (2006) ‘On Welfare and Terror: Social Welfare Policies and Political-Economic Roots of Terrorism’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 50(2), pp. 176–203. Available at:
  • Clauset, A., Young, M. and Gleditsch, K.S. (2007) ‘On the Frequency of Severe Terrorist Events’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 51(1), pp. 58–87. Available at:
  • Cooper, H.H.A. (2001) ‘Terrorism: The Problem of Definition Revisited’, American Behavioral Scientist, 44(6), pp. 881–893. Available at:
  • de la Calle, L. and Sánchez-Cuenca, I. (2011) ‘What We Talk About When We Talk About Terrorism’, Politics & Society, 39(3), pp. 451–472. Available at:
  • Dietrich, F. (2014) ‘Anti-terrorism policies and the risk of provoking’, Journal of Theoretical Politics, 26(3), pp. 405–441. Available at:
  • Dodsworth, F. (2012) ‘Criminologists on Terrorism and Homeland Security’, Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews, 41(5), pp. 628–629. Available at:
  • Engene, J.O. (2007) ‘Five Decades of Terrorism in Europe: The TWEED Dataset’, Journal of Peace Research, 44(1), pp. 109–121. Available at:
  • Field, A. (2009) ‘The “New Terrorism”: Revolution or Evolution?’, Political Studies Review, 7(2), pp. 195–207. Available at:
  • Galicki, Z. (2005) ‘International Law and Terrorism’, American Behavioral Scientist, 48(6), pp. 743–757. Available at:
  • Gelpi, C. and Avdan, N. (2018) ‘Democracies at risk? A forecasting analysis of regime type and the risk of terrorist attack’, Conflict Management and Peace Science, 35(1), pp. 18–42. Available at:
  • Ghatak, S. and Gold, A. (2017) ‘Development, discrimination, and domestic terrorism: Looking beyond a linear relationship’, Conflict Management and Peace Science, 34(6), pp. 618–639. Available at:
  • Gibbs, J.P. (1989) ‘Conceptualization of Terrorism’, American Sociological Review, 54(3), p. 329. Available at:
  • Heath-Kelly, C. (2010) ‘Critical Terrorism Studies, Critical Theory and the “Naturalistic Fallacy”’, Security Dialogue, 41(3), pp. 235–254. Available at:
  • Howard, D. (2011) ‘Why study the history of political thought?’, Philosophy & Social Criticism, 37(5), pp. 519–531. Available at:
  • Kalyvas, S.N. and Kocher, M.A. (2007) ‘Ethnic Cleavages and Irregular War: Iraq and Vietnam’, Politics & Society, 35(2), pp. 183–223. Available at:
  • Katz, M.B. (2008) ‘Why Don’t American Cities Burn Very Often?’, Journal of Urban History, 34(2), pp. 185–208. Available at:
  • Kurtulus, E.N. (2011) ‘The “New Terrorism” and its Critics’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 34(6), pp. 476–500. Available at:
  • Lauderdale, P. and Oliverio, A. (2005) ‘Introduction: Critical Perspectives on Terrorism’, International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 46(1–2), pp. 3–10. Available at:
  • Levin, B. (2001) ‘History as a Weapon: How Extremists Deny the Holocaust in North America’, American Behavioral Scientist, 44(6), pp. 1001–1031. Available at:
  • Mills, C.E., Freilich, J.D. and Chermak, S.M. (2017) ‘Extreme Hatred: Revisiting the Hate Crime and Terrorism Relationship to Determine Whether They Are “Close Cousins” or “Distant Relatives”’, Crime & Delinquency, 63(10), pp. 1191–1223. Available at:
  • Ness, S.A. (2005) ‘Tourism-terrorism: The landscaping of consumption and the darker side of place’, American Ethnologist, 32(1), pp. 118–140. Available at:
  • Ross, J.I. (1993) ‘Structural Causes of Oppositional Political Terrorism: Towards a Causal Model’, Journal of Peace Research, 30(3), pp. 317–329. Available at:
  • Sandler, T. (2014) ‘The analytical study of terrorism: Taking stock’, Journal of Peace Research, 51(2), pp. 257–271. Available at:
  • Saygili, A. (2019) ‘Concessions or Crackdown: How Regime Stability Shapes Democratic Responses to Hostage taking Terrorism’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 63(2), pp. 468–501. Available at:
  • Schinkel, W. (2009) ‘On the concept of terrorism’, Contemporary Political Theory, 8(2), pp. 176–198. Available at:
  • Smith, M. and Zeigler, S.M. (2017) ‘Terrorism before and after 9/11 – a more dangerous world?’, Research & Politics, 4(4), p. 205316801773975. Available at:
  • Tilly, C. (2004) ‘Terror, Terrorism, Terrorists’, Sociological Theory, 22(1), pp. 5–13. Available at:
  • Wade, S.J. and Reiter, D. (2007) ‘Does Democracy Matter?: Regime Type and Suicide Terrorism’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 51(2), pp. 329–348. Available at:
  • Weatherston, D. and Moran, J. (2003) ‘Terrorism and Mental Illness: Is there a Relationship?’, International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 47(6), pp. 698–713. Available at:
  • Zhirkov, K., Verkuyten, M. and Weesie, J. (2014) ‘Perceptions of world politics and support for terrorism among Muslims: Evidence from Muslim countries and Western Europe’, Conflict Management and Peace Science, 31(5), pp. 481–501. Available at:

Lecture 2: Salafi-Jihadist Threat and Al-Qaeda

Core Required Reading

  1. Polizzi, D. (2021) Toward a Phenomenology of Terrorism: Beyond Who is Killing Whom. Cham: Springer International Publishing (Critical Criminological Perspectives). Available at:
  • Toward a Phenomenology of Jihad: Salifst Jihadi Perspectives
  • Al-Qaeda and the Rise of Global Jihad
  1. Burke, P., Elnakhala, D. and Miller, S. (2021) Global Jihadist Terrorism. Edward Elgar Publishing. Available at:
  • Al-Qaeda
  • Lashkar-e-Taiba

Recommended Reading

  • ‘The Popular Discourses of Salafi Radicalism and Salafi Counter-radicalism in Nigeria: A Case Study of Boko Haram’ (2012) The Journal of Religion in Africa, 42(2), pp. 118–144. Available at:
  • Agathangelou, A.M. and Ling, L.H.M. (2004) ‘Power, Borders, Security, Wealth: Lessons of Violence and Desire from September 11’, International Studies Quarterly, 48(3), pp. 517–538. Available at:
  • Agbiboa, D.E. (2014) ‘Boko-Haram and the Global Jihad: “Do Not Think Jihad is Over. Rather Jihad Has Just Begun”’, Australian Journal of International Affairs, 68(4), pp. 400–417. Available at:
  • Alonso, R. and García Rey, M. (2007) ‘The Evolution of Jihadist Terrorism in Morocco’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 19(4), pp. 571–592. Available at:
  • Antwi-Boateng, O. (2017) ‘The Rise of Pan-Islamic Terrorism in Africa: A Global Security Challenge: Terrorism And Global Security’, Politics & Policy, 45(2), pp. 253–284. Available at:
  • Bazian, H. (2018) ‘Islamophobia, “Clash of Civilizations”, and Forging a Post-Cold War Order!’, Religions, 9(9), p. 282. Available at:
  • Berlin, M., Biasi, S. and Parker, T.B. (2022) ‘Jihadist Journalism: Exploring the Geographic Coverage of al-Masra Newspaper’, Terrorism and Political Violence, pp. 1–21. Available at:
  • Böckler, N., Hoffmann, J. and Meloy, J.R. (2017) ‘“Jihad Against the Enemies of Allah”: The Berlin Christmas Market Attack from a Threat Assessment Perspective’, Violence and Gender, 4(3), pp. 73–80. Available at:
  • Brown, J.A.C. (2015) ‘Is Islam Easy to Understand or Not?: Salafis, the Democratization of Interpretation and the Need for the Ulema’, Journal of Islamic Studies, 26(2), pp. 117–144. Available at:
  • Buijs, F.J. (2009) ‘Muslims in the Netherlands: Social and Political Developments after 9/11’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 35(3), pp. 421–438. Available at:
  • Byman, D. and Mir, A. (2022) ‘Assessing al-Qaeda: A Debate’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, pp. 1–40. Available at:
  • Cohen-Almagor, R. (2017) ‘Jihad Online: How Do Terrorists Use the Internet?’, in F.C. Freire et al. (eds) Media and Metamedia Management. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 55–66. Available at:
  • Drevon, J. and Haenni, P. (2022) ‘Redefining Global Jihad and Its Termination: The Subjugation of al-Qaeda by Its Former Franchise in Syria’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, pp. 1–16. Available at:
  • Ekman, M. (2015) ‘Online Islamophobia and the politics of fear: manufacturing the green scare’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 38(11), pp. 1986–2002. Available at:
  • Esposito, J. (2015) ‘Islam and Political Violence’, Religions, 6(3), pp. 1067–1081. Available at:
  • Goodwin, M.J., Cutts, D. and Janta-Lipinski, L. (2016) ‘Economic Losers, Protestors, Islamophobes or Xenophobes? Predicting Public Support for a Counter-Jihad Movement’, Political Studies, 64(1), pp. 4–26. Available at:
  • Gunaratna, R. and Nielsen, A. (2008) ‘Al Qaeda in the Tribal Areas of Pakistan and Beyond’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 31(9), pp. 775–807. Available at:
  • Hafez, M.M. (2007) ‘Martyrdom Mythology in Iraq: How Jihadists Frame Suicide Terrorism in Videos and Biographies’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 19(1), pp. 95–115. Available at:
  • Hafez, M.M. (2009) ‘Jihad after Iraq: Lessons from the Arab Afghans’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 32(2), pp. 73–94. Available at:
  • Hafez, M.M. (2010) ‘The Alchemy of Martyrdom: Jihadi Salafism and Debates over Suicide Bombings in the Muslim World’, Asian Journal of Social Science, 38(3), pp. 364–378. Available at:
  • Hashim, A.S. (2014) ‘The Islamic State: From al-Qaeda Affiliate to Caliphate’, Middle East Policy, 21(4), pp. 69–83. Available at:
  • Hegghammer, T. (2013) ‘Should I Stay or Should I Go? Explaining Variation in Western Jihadists’ Choice between Domestic and Foreign Fighting’, American Political Science Review, 107(1), pp. 1–15. Available at:
  • Hegghammer, T. (2020) The Caravan: Abdallah Azzam and the Rise of Global Jihad. 1st edn. Cambridge University Press. Available at:
  • Hellmich, C. (2008) ‘Creating the Ideology of Al Qaeda: From Hypocrites to Salafi-Jihadists’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 31(2), pp. 111–124. Available at:
  • Hernann, A. (2016) ‘Discourse in crisis: situating slavery, jihad and military intervention in northern Mali’, Dialectical Anthropology, 40(3), pp. 267–286. Available at:
  • Hoffman, B. (2004) ‘The Changing Face of Al Qaeda and the Global War on Terrorism’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 27(6), pp. 549–560. Available at:
  • Hoigilt, J. and Nome, F. (2014) ‘Egyptian Salafism in Revolution’, Journal of Islamic Studies, 25(1), pp. 33–54. Available at:
  • Kapur, S.P. and Ganguly, S. (2012) ‘The Jihad Paradox: Pakistan and Islamist Militancy in South Asia’, International Security, 37(1), pp. 111–141. Available at:
  • Kavrakis, K. (2022) ‘Identity and Ideology through the Frames of al-Qaeda and Islamic State’, Terrorism and Political Violence, pp. 1–18. Available at:
  • Kirby, A. (2007) ‘The London Bombers as “Self-Starters”: A Case Study in Indigenous Radicalization and the Emergence of Autonomous Cliques’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 30(5), pp. 415–428. Available at:
  • Klausen, J. (2015) ‘Tweeting the Jihad : Social Media Networks of Western Foreign Fighters in Syria and Iraq’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 38(1), pp. 1–22. Available at:
  • Koch, A. (2021) ‘The Non-Jihadi Foreign Fighters: Western Right-Wing and Left-Wing Extremists in Syria’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 33(4), pp. 669–696. Available at:
  • Kursani, S. (2018) ‘Salafi pluralism in national contexts: the secular state, nation and militant Islamism in Kosovo, Albania, and Macedonia’, Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, 18(2), pp. 301–317. Available at:
  • Lauzière, H. (2010) ‘THE CONSTRUCTION OF SALAFIYYA : RECONSIDERING SALAFISM FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF CONCEPTUAL HISTORY’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 42(3), pp. 369–389. Available at:
  • Leidig, E. (2021) ‘From Love Jihad to Grooming Gangs: Tracing Flows of the Hypersexual Muslim Male through Far-Right Female Influencers’, Religions, 12(12), p. 1083. Available at:
  • Lister, C. (2014) ‘Assessing Syria’s Jihad’, Survival, 56(6), pp. 87–112. Available at:
  • Malji, A. and Raza, S.T. (2021) ‘The Securitization of Love Jihad’, Religions, 12(12), p. 1074. Available at:
  • Marchal, R. and Sheikh, Z.M. (2015) ‘Salafism in Somalia: Coping with Coercion, Civil War and its Own Contradictions’, Islamic Africa, 6(1–2), pp. 135–163. Available at:
  • Marks, M. (2013) ‘Youth Politics and Tunisian Salafism: Understanding the Jihadi Current’, Mediterranean Politics, 18(1), pp. 104–111. Available at:
  • Marret, J.-L. (2008) ‘Al-Qaeda in Islamic Maghreb: A “Glocal” Organization’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 31(6), pp. 541–552. Available at:
  • McCauley, C.R. (2019) ‘Explaining Homegrown Western Jihadists: The Importance of Western Foreign Policy’, International Journal of Conflict and Violence (IJCV), p. a643 Pages, 153 kB. Available at:
  • Mendelsohn, B. (2005) ‘Sovereignty under attack: the international society meets the Al Qaeda network’, Review of International Studies, 31(1), pp. 45–68. Available at:
  • Merone, F. (2015) ‘Enduring Class Struggle in Tunisia: The Fight for Identity beyond Political Islam’, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 42(1), pp. 74–87. Available at:
  • Nesser, P. (2008) ‘How did Europe’s Global Jihadis Obtain Training for their Militant Causes?’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 20(2), pp. 234–256. Available at:
  • Neumann, P.R. (2006) ‘Europe’s Jihadist Dilemma’, Survival, 48(2), pp. 71–84. Available at:
  • Novenario, C.M.I. (2016b) ‘Differentiating Al Qaeda and the Islamic State Through Strategies Publicized in Jihadist Magazines’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 39(11), pp. 953–967. Available at:
  • Öktem, K. (2011) ‘Between emigration, de-Islamization and the nation-state: Muslim communities in the Balkans today’, Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, 11(2), pp. 155–171. Available at:
  • Østebø, T. (2015) ‘African Salafism: Religious Purity and the Politicization of Purity’, Islamic Africa, 6(1–2), pp. 1–29. Available at:
  • Payne, K. (2009) ‘Winning the Battle of Ideas: Propaganda, Ideology, and Terror’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 32(2), pp. 109–128. Available at:
  • Piazza, J.A. (2009) ‘Is Islamist Terrorism More Dangerous?: An Empirical Study of Group Ideology, Organization, and Goal Structure’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 21(1), pp. 62–88. Available at:
  • Rudner, M. (2017) ‘“Electronic Jihad ”: The Internet as Al Qaeda’s Catalyst for Global Terror’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 40(1), pp. 10–23. Available at:
  • Sedgwick, M. (2004) ‘Al-Qaeda and the Nature of Religious Terrorism’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 16(4), pp. 795–814. Available at:
  • Sendagorta, F. (2005) ‘Jihad in Europe: The wider context’, Survival, 47(3), pp. 63–72. Available at:
  • Smith, M. and Walsh, J.I. (2013) ‘Do Drone Strikes Degrade Al Qaeda? Evidence From Propaganda Output’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 25(2), pp. 311–327. Available at:
  • Souleimanov, E. and Ehrmann, M. (2013) ‘The Rise of Militant Salafism in Azerbaijan and Its Regional Implications’, Middle East Policy, 20(3), pp. 111–120. Available at:
  • Taji‐Farouki, S. (2000) ‘Islamists and the threat of Jihad: Hizb al‐Tahrir and al‐Muhajiroun on Israel and the Jews’, Middle Eastern Studies, 36(4), pp. 21–46. Available at:
  • Torelli, S.M., Merone, F. and Cavatorta, F. (2012) ‘Salafism in Tunisia: Challenges and Opportunities for Democratization’, Middle East Policy, 19(4), pp. 140–154. Available at:
  • Torres-Soriano, M.R. (2020) ‘Jihadist Propaganda as a Threat Indicator: The Case of Spain’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 32(2), pp. 365–381. Available at:
  • Von Knop, K. (2007) ‘The Female Jihad: Al Qaeda’s Women’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 30(5), pp. 397–414. Available at:
  • Wagemakers, J. (2009) ‘A Purist Jihadi-Salafi: The Ideology of Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi’, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 36(2), pp. 281–297. Available at:
  • Walldorf, C.W. (2022) ‘Narratives and War: Explaining the Length and End of U.S. Military Operations in Afghanistan’, International Security, 47(1), pp. 93–138. Available at:
  • Wayne, M.I. (2009) ‘Inside China’s War on Terrorism’, Journal of Contemporary China, 18(59), pp. 249–261. Available at:
  • Wedgwood, R. (2002) ‘Al Qaeda, Terrorism, and Military Commissions’, American Journal of International Law, 96(2), pp. 328–337. Available at:
  • Wiktorowicz, Q. (2001) ‘The New Global Threat: Transnational Salafis and Jihad’, Middle East Policy, 8(4), pp. 18–38. Available at:
  • Wiktorowicz, Q. (2005) ‘A Genealogy of Radical Islam’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 28(2), pp. 75–97. Available at:
  • Wiktorowicz, Q. and Kaltner, J. (2003) ‘Killing in the Name of Islam: Al-Qaeda’s Justification for September 11’, Middle East Policy, 10(2), pp. 76–92. Available at:
  • Williams, B.G. (2010) ‘The CIA’s Covert Predator Drone War in Pakistan, 2004–2010: The History of an Assassination Campaign’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 33(10), pp. 871–892. Available at:

Lecture 3: Islamic State, Taliban, Hezbollah, and Hamas

Core Required Reading

  1. Polizzi, D. (2021) Toward a Phenomenology of Terrorism: Beyond Who is Killing Whom. Cham: Springer International Publishing (Critical Criminological Perspectives). Available at:
  • The Islamic State and the Return of the Caliphate
  • The Taliban and Hezbollah: Political Parties or Terror Organizations
  1. Burke, P., Elnakhala, D. and Miller, S. (2021) Global Jihadist Terrorism. Edward Elgar Publishing. Available at:
  • The so-called Islamic State
  • Hamas

Recommended Reading

  • Al‐Aloosy, M. (2022) ‘Hezbollah in Syria: An Insurgent’s Ideology, Interest, and Survival’, Middle East Policy, 29(1), pp. 125–138. Available at:
  • Aran, A. (2012) ‘Containment and territorial transnational actors: Israel, Hezbollah and Hamas’, International Affairs, 88(4), pp. 835–855. Available at:
  • Ayyash, M.M. (2010) ‘Hamas and the Israeli state: A “violent dialogue”’, European Journal of International Relations, 16(1), pp. 103–123. Available at:
  • Azam, J.-P. (2005) ‘Suicide-bombing as inter-generational investment’, Public Choice, 122(1–2), pp. 177–198. Available at:
  • Azani, E. (2013) ‘The Hybrid Terrorist Organization: Hezbollah as a Case Study’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 36(11), pp. 899–916. Available at:
  • Bhasin, T. and Hallward, M.C. (2013) ‘Hamas as a Political Party: Democratization in the Palestinian Territories’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 25(1), pp. 75–93. Available at:
  • Byman, D. (2016) ‘Understanding the Islamic State—A Review Essay’, International Security, 40(4), pp. 127–165. Available at:
  • DeVore, M.R. and Stähli, A.B. (2015) ‘Explaining Hezbollah’s Effectiveness: Internal and External Determinants of the Rise of Violent Non-State Actors’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 27(2), pp. 331–357. Available at:
  • Dolnik, A. and Bhattacharjee, A. (2002) ‘Hamas: Suicide Bombings, Rockets, or WMD?’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 14(3), pp. 109–128. Available at:
  • Farrell, T. and Giustozzi, A. (2013) ‘The Taliban at war: inside the Helmand insurgency, 2004-2012’, International Affairs, 89(4), pp. 845–871. Available at:
  • Flanigan, S.T. (2012) ‘Terrorists Next Door? A Comparison of Mexican Drug Cartels and Middle Eastern Terrorist Organizations’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 24(2), pp. 279–294. Available at:
  • Flanigan, S.T. and Abdel-Samad, M. (2009) ‘Hezbollah’s Social Jihad: Nonprofits as Resistance Organizations’, Middle East Policy, 16(2), pp. 122–137. Available at:
  • Fuller, G.E. (2002) ‘The Future of Political Islam’, Foreign Affairs, 81(2), p. 48. Available at:
  • Gerges, F.A. (2013) ‘The Islamist Moment: From Islamic State to Civil Islam?: FROM ISLAMIC STATE TO CIVIL ISLAM’, Political Science Quarterly, 128(3), pp. 389–426. Available at:
  • Gunning, J. (2004) ‘Peace with Hamas? The Transforming Potential of Political Participation’, International Affairs, 80(2), pp. 233–255. Available at:
  • Gupta, D.K. and Mundra, K. (2005) ‘Suicide Bombing as a Strategic Weapon: An Empirical Investigation of Hamas and Islamic Jihad’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 17(4), pp. 573–598. Available at:
  • Haddad, S. (2006) ‘The Origins of Popular Support for Lebanon’s Hezbollah’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 29(1), pp. 21–34. Available at:
  • Haesebrouck, T. (2016) ‘Democratic Participation in the Air Strikes Against Islamic State: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis’, Foreign Policy Analysis, p. orw035. Available at:
  • Hamdan, A.N. (2016) ‘Breaker of Barriers? Notes on the Geopolitics of the Islamic State in Iraq and Sham’, Geopolitics, 21(3), pp. 605–627. Available at:
  • Holland, J. (2011) ‘“When You Think of the Taliban, Think of the Nazis”: Teaching Americans “9/11” in NBC’s The West Wing’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 40(1), pp. 85–106. Available at:
  • Horgan, J.G. et al. (2017) ‘From Cubs to Lions: A Six Stage Model of Child Socialization into the Islamic State’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 40(7), pp. 645–664. Available at:
  • Hovdenak, A. (2009) ‘Hamas in transition: the failure of sanctions’, Democratization, 16(1), pp. 59–80. Available at:
  • Ingram, H.J. (2015) ‘The strategic logic of Islamic State information operations’, Australian Journal of International Affairs, 69(6), pp. 729–752. Available at:
  • Ingram, H.J. (2016) ‘An analysis of Islamic State’s Dabiq magazine’, Australian Journal of Political Science, 51(3), pp. 458–477. Available at:
  • Ingram, H.J., Whiteside, C. and Winter, C. (2020) The ISIS Reader: Milestone Texts of the Islamic State Movement. 1st edn. Oxford University Press. Available at:
  • Isakhan, B. (2020) ‘The Islamic State Attacks on Shia Holy Sites and the “Shrine Protection Narrative”: Threats to Sacred Space as a Mobilization Frame’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 32(4), pp. 724–748. Available at:
  • Lyall, J., Blair, G. and Imai, K. (2013) ‘Explaining Support for Combatants during Wartime: A Survey Experiment in Afghanistan’, American Political Science Review, 107(4), pp. 679–705. Available at:
  • Marcus, R.D. (2019) ‘Learning “Under Fire”: Israel’s improvised military adaptation to Hamas tunnel warfare’, Journal of Strategic Studies, 42(3–4), pp. 344–370. Available at:
  • Milton-Edwards, B. (2013) ‘Hamas and the Arab Spring: Strategic Shifts?’, Middle East Policy, 20(3), pp. 60–72. Available at:
  • Milton-Edwards, B. (2017) ‘The “Warriors Break”: Hamas and the Limits of Ceasefire Beyond Tactical Pause’, International Peacekeeping, 24(2), pp. 212–235. Available at:
  • Mishal, S. (2003) ‘The Pragmatic Dimension of the Palestinian Hamas: A Network Perspective’, Armed Forces & Society, 29(4), pp. 569–589. Available at:
  • Montgomery, E.B. and Pettyjohn, S.L. (2010) ‘Democratization, Instability, and War: Israel’s 2006 Conflicts with Hamas and Hezbollah’, Security Studies, 19(3), pp. 521–554. Available at:
  • Mullin, C. (2010) ‘Islamist Challenges to the “Liberal Peace” Discourse: The Case of Hamas and the Israel—Palestine “Peace Process”’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 39(2), pp. 525–546. Available at:
  • Nilsson, M. (2018) ‘Primary Unit Cohesion Among the Peshmerga and Hezbollah’, Armed Forces & Society, 44(4), pp. 647–665. Available at:
  • Nilsson, M. (2020) ‘Hezbollah and the framing of resistance’, Third World Quarterly, 41(9), pp. 1595–1614. Available at:
  • Pace, M. and Pallister-Wilkins, P. (2018) ‘EU–Hamas actors in a state of permanent liminality’, Journal of International Relations and Development, 21(1), pp. 223–246. Available at:
  • Piazza, J.A. (2012) ‘The Opium Trade and Patterns of Terrorism in the Provinces of Afghanistan: An Empirical Analysis’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 24(2), pp. 213–234. Available at:
  • Post, J., Sprinzak, E. and Denny, L. (2003) ‘The terrorists in their own words: Interviews with 35 incarcerated Middle Eastern terrorists∗∗This research was conducted with the support of the Smith Richardson Foundation.’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 15(1), pp. 171–184. Available at:
  • Ralph, J. and Souter, J. (2015) ‘A special responsibility to protect: the UK, Australia and the rise of Islamic State’, International Affairs, 91(4), pp. 709–723. Available at:
  • Revkin, M.R. (2020) ‘What Explains Taxation by Resource-Rich Rebels? Evidence from the Islamic State in Syria’, The Journal of Politics, 82(2), pp. 757–764. Available at:
  • Revkin, M.R. (2021) ‘Competitive Governance and Displacement Decisions Under Rebel Rule: Evidence from the Islamic State in Iraq’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 65(1), pp. 46–80. Available at:
  • Sadiki, L. (2010) ‘Reframing resistance and democracy: narratives from Hamas and Hizbullah’, Democratization, 17(2), pp. 350–376. Available at:
  • Schleifer, R. (2006) ‘Psychological Operations: A New Variation on an Age Old Art: Hezbollah versus Israel’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 29(1), pp. 1–19. Available at:
  • Sharp, P. (2003) ‘Mullah Zaeef and Taliban diplomacy: an English School approach’, Review of International Studies, 29(4), pp. 481–498. Available at:
  • Sobelman, D. (2017) ‘Learning to Deter: Deterrence Failure and Success in the Israel-Hezbollah Conflict, 2006–16’, International Security, 41(3), pp. 151–196. Available at:
  • Stansfield, G. (2014) ‘The Islamic State, the Kurdistan Region and the future of Iraq: assessing UK policy options’, International Affairs, 90(6), pp. 1329–1350. Available at:
  • Szekely, O. (2015) ‘Doing Well by Doing Good: Understanding Hamas’s Social Services as Political Advertising’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 38(4), pp. 275–292. Available at:
  • Weigand, F. (2017) ‘Afghanistan’s Taliban – Legitimate Jihadists or Coercive Extremists?’, Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, 11(3), pp. 359–381. Available at:
  • Wiegand, K.E. (2009) ‘Reformation of a Terrorist Group: Hezbollah as a Lebanese Political Party’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 32(8), pp. 669–680. Available at:
  • Zenn, J. (2020) ‘Boko Haram’s Conquest for the Caliphate: How Al Qaeda Helped Islamic State Acquire Territory’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 43(2), pp. 89–122. Available at:

Lecture 4: Sahel and the Islamic State in Khorasan

Core Required Reading

  1. Aslam, W. (2020) ‘Pakistan’s hard misplacement and the politics of regional identity’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 33(4), pp. 542–554. Available at:
  2. Baldaro, E. (2021) ‘Rashomon in the Sahel: Conflict dynamics of security regionalism’, Security Dialogue, 52(3), pp. 266–283. Available at:
  3. Chelin, R.P. (2020) ‘From the Islamic State of Algeria to the Economic Caliphate of the Sahel: The Transformation of Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 32(6), pp. 1186–1205. Available at:
  4. Cline, L.E. (2021) ‘Jihadist Movements in the Sahel: Rise of the Fulani?’, Terrorism and Political Violence, pp. 1–17. Available at:
  5. Fadel, M. (2019) ‘Ideas, Ideology, and the Roots of the Islamic State’, Critical Review, 31(1), pp. 83–94. Available at:
  6. Ibrahimi, N. and Akbarzadeh, S. (2020) ‘Intra- Jihadist Conflict and Cooperation: Islamic State–Khorasan Province and the Taliban in Afghanistan’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 43(12), pp. 1086–1107. Available at:
  7. Verma, R. (2021) ‘The Afghan Peace Process: Domestic Fault Lines’, Middle East Policy, 28(3–4), pp. 172–185. Available at:

Recommended Reading

  • Afriyie, F.A. (2019) ‘BURKINA FASO: An Inquisition of Ansaroul Islam Insurgency in West Africa and Its Emerging Threat’, Conflict Studies Quarterly, (29), pp. 3–16. Available at:
  • Ajala, O. (2018) ‘US Drone Base in Agadez: A Security Threat to Niger?’, The RUSI Journal, 163(5), pp. 20–27. Available at:
  • Azami, D. (2016) ‘The Islamic State in South and Central Asia’, Survival, 58(4), pp. 131–158. Available at:
  • Bencherif, A. (2020) ‘From Resilience to Fragmentation: Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb and Jihadist Group Modularity’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 32(1), pp. 100–118. Available at:
  • Benedikter, R. and Ouedraogo, I. (2019) ‘Saving West Africa from the rise of terrorism: Burkina Faso’s “Emergency Program for the Sahel” and the need for a multidimensional strategy’, Global Change, Peace & Security, 31(1), pp. 113–119. Available at:
  • Boeke, S. (2016) ‘Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb: Terrorism, insurgency, or organized crime?’, Small Wars & Insurgencies, 27(5), pp. 914–936. Available at:
  • Bos, M. and Melissen, J. (2019) ‘Rebel diplomacy and digital communication: public diplomacy in the Sahel’, International Affairs, 95(6), pp. 1331–1348. Available at:
  • Cornell, S.E. (2005) ‘Narcotics, Radicalism, and Armed Conflict in Central Asia: The Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 17(4), pp. 619–639. Available at:
  • D’Amato, S. (2018) ‘Terrorists going transnational: rethinking the role of states in the case of AQIM and Boko Haram’, Critical Studies on Terrorism, 11(1), pp. 151–172. Available at:
  • D’Souza, S.M. (2016) ‘Taliban: The Rebels Who Aspire to be Rulers’, Journal of Asian Security and International Affairs, 3(1), pp. 20–40. Available at:
  • de Bruijn, M. and Both, J. (2017) ‘Youth Between State and Rebel (Dis)Orders: Contesting Legitimacy from Below in Sub-Sahara Africa’, Small Wars & Insurgencies, 28(4–5), pp. 779–798. Available at:
  • Dieng, M. (2019) ‘The Multi-National Joint Task Force and the G5 Sahel Joint Force: The limits of military capacity-building efforts’, Contemporary Security Policy, 40(4), pp. 481–501. Available at:
  • Ejiofor, P.F. (2022) ‘“Fulanis are foreign terrorists”: the social construction of a suspect community in the Sahel’, Critical Studies on Terrorism, 15(2), pp. 333–355. Available at:
  • Ejiofor, P.F. (2022) ‘“We don’t have anything”: understanding the interaction between pastoralism and terrorism in Nigeria’, Conflict, Security & Development, 22(4), pp. 345–385. Available at:
  • Erforth, B. (2020) ‘Multilateralism as a tool: Exploring French military cooperation in the Sahel’, Journal of Strategic Studies, 43(4), pp. 560–582. Available at:
  • Finkel, S.E. et al. (2021) ‘Community Violence and Support for Violent Extremism: Evidence From the Sahel’, Political Psychology, 42(1), pp. 143–161. Available at:
  • Frowd, P.M. (2014) ‘The field of border control in Mauritania’, Security Dialogue, 45(3), pp. 226–241. Available at:
  • Graham, F.C. (2011) ‘Abductions, kidnappings and killings in the Sahel and Sahara’, Review of African Political Economy, 38(130), pp. 587–604. Available at:
  • Griffin, C. (2016) ‘Operation Barkhane and Boko Haram: French Counterterrorism and Military Cooperation in the Sahel’, Small Wars & Insurgencies, 27(5), pp. 896–913. Available at:
  • Harmon, S. (2015) ‘Securitization Initiatives in the Sahara-Sahel Region in the Twenty-first Century’, African Security, 8(4), pp. 227–248. Available at:
  • Ibrahimi, S.Y. (2017) ‘The Taliban’s Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (1996–2001): “War-Making and State-Making” as an Insurgency Strategy’, Small Wars & Insurgencies, 28(6), pp. 947–972. Available at:
  • Ingram, H.J. (2015) ‘An Analysis of the Taliban in Khurasan’s Azan (Issues 1–5)’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 38(7), pp. 560–579. Available at:
  • Jadoon, A. (2022) ‘Operational Convergence or Divergence? Exploring the Influence of Islamic State on Militant Groups in Pakistan’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, pp. 1–25. Available at:
  • Kfir, I. (2018) ‘Organized Criminal-Terrorist Groups in the Sahel: How Counterterrorism and Counterinsurgency Approaches Ignore the Roots of the Problem’, International Studies Perspectives, 19(4), pp. 344–359. Available at:
  • Lushenko, P., Auken, L.V. and Stebbins, G. (2019) ‘ISIS-K: deadly nuisance or strategic threat?’, Small Wars & Insurgencies, 30(2), pp. 265–278. Available at:
  • Menon, R. (2003) ‘The New Great Game in Central Asia’, Survival, 45(2), pp. 187–204. Available at:
  • Okoli, C.R. et al. (2022) ‘Security in the Lake Chad Basin and Sahel region after Idris Déby’, Small Wars & Insurgencies, pp. 1–24. Available at:
  • Ouellet, E., Lacroix-Leclair, J. and Pahlavi, P. (2014) ‘The Institutionalization of Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQMI)’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 26(4), pp. 650–665. Available at:
  • Raineri, L. and Strazzari, F. (2019) ‘(B)ordering Hybrid Security? EU Stabilisation Practices in the Sahara-Sahel Region’, Ethnopolitics, 18(5), pp. 544–559. Available at:
  • Rosato, V. (2016) ‘“Hybrid Orders” between Terrorism and Organized Crime: The Case of Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb’, African Security, 9(2), pp. 110–135. Available at:
  • Rubin, B.R. (1997) ‘Women and pipelines: Afghanistan’s proxy wars’, International Affairs, 73(2), pp. 283–296. Available at:
  • Schmidt, J.R. (2009) ‘The Unravelling of Pakistan’, Survival, 51(3), pp. 29–54. Available at:
  • Sungur, Z.T. (2022) ‘Nation as conceptualised in Islamic Republic of Afghanistan’, Nations and Nationalism, 28(3), pp. 990–1005. Available at:
  • Tankel, S. (2020) ‘US counterterrorism in the Sahel: from indirect to direct intervention’, International Affairs, 96(4), pp. 875–893. Available at:
  • Teirilä, O.J. (2014) ‘The Challenges to Cooperation Posed by the Nexus of Terrorism and Organized Crime: Comparing the Situations Between the Andean and the Sahel Regions’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 37(1), pp. 18–40. Available at:
  • Verma, R. (2022) ‘Afghanistan, regional powers and non‐traditional security threats and challenges’, Global Policy, 13(1), pp. 107–113. Available at:
  • Verma, R. (2022) ‘US–Taliban peace deal and regional powers as potential spoilers: Iran as a case study’, International Politics, 59(2), pp. 260–279. Available at:
  • Walther, O.J. and Christopoulos, D. (2015) ‘Islamic Terrorism and the Malian Rebellion’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 27(3), pp. 497–519. Available at:
  • Zoubir, Y.H. (2009) ‘The United States and Maghreb-Sahel security’, International Affairs, 85(5), pp. 977–995. Available at:

Lecture 5: White Supremacy and Reemergence of the Far-Right

Core Required Reading

  1. Polizzi, D. (2021) Toward a Phenomenology of Terrorism: Beyond Who is Killing Whom. Cham: Springer International Publishing (Critical Criminological Perspectives). Available at:

Recommended Reading

  • Allen, T.J. (2017) ‘All in the party family? Comparing far right voters in Western and Post-Communist Europe’, Party Politics, 23(3), pp. 274–285. Available at:
  • Art, D. (2007) ‘Reacting to the Radical Right: Lessons from Germany and Austria’, Party Politics, 13(3), pp. 331–349. Available at:
  • Bale, T. et al. (2010) ‘If you can’t Beat them, Join them? Explaining Social Democratic Responses to the Challenge from the Populist Radical Right in Western Europe’, Political Studies, 58(3), pp. 410–426. Available at:
  • Blazak, R. (2001) ‘White Boys to Terrorist Men: Target Recruitment of Nazi Skinheads’, American Behavioral Scientist, 44(6), pp. 982–1000. Available at:
  • Chermak, S., Freilich, J. and Suttmoeller, M. (2013) ‘The Organizational Dynamics of Far-Right Hate Groups in the United States: Comparing Violent to Nonviolent Organizations’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 36(3), pp. 193–218. Available at:
  • Cole, A. (2005) ‘Old right or new right? The ideological positioning of parties of the far right’, European Journal of Political Research, 44(2), pp. 203–230. Available at:
  • Cole, K. (2018) ‘Thinking through race: white racial identity, motivated cognition and the unconscious maintenance of white supremacy’, Politics, Groups, and Identities, 6(2), pp. 181–198. Available at:
  • Davis, A.M. and Ernst, R. (2019) ‘Racial gaslighting’, Politics, Groups, and Identities, 7(4), pp. 761–774. Available at:
  • Dawson, M.C. and Katzenstein, E.A. (2019) ‘Survey Article: Articulated Darkness: White Supremacy, Patriarchy, and Capitalism in Shelby’s Dark Ghettos’, Journal of Political Philosophy, 27(2), pp. 252–268. Available at:
  • Ellinas, A.A. (2013) ‘The Rise of Golden Dawn: The New Face of the Far Right in Greece’, South European Society and Politics, 18(4), pp. 543–565. Available at:
  • Erk, J. (2005) ‘From Vlaams Blok to Vlaams Belang: The Belgian Far-Right Renames Itself’, West European Politics, 28(3), pp. 493–502. Available at:
  • Erlenbusch-Anderson, V. (2022) ‘Historicizing White Supremacist Terrorism with Ida B. Wells’, Political Theory, 50(2), pp. 275–304. Available at:
  • Feola, M. (2021) ‘“You Will Not Replace Us”: The Melancholic Nationalism of Whiteness’, Political Theory, 49(4), pp. 528–553. Available at:
  • Georgiadou, V., Rori, L. and Roumanias, C. (2018) ‘Mapping the European far right in the 21st century: A meso-level analysis’, Electoral Studies, 54, pp. 103–115. Available at:
  • Gruenewald, J., Chermak, S. and Freilich, J.D. (2013) ‘Far-Right Lone Wolf Homicides in the United States’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 36(12), pp. 1005–1024. Available at:
  • Ikenberry, G.J. (2018) ‘The end of liberal international order?’, International Affairs, 94(1), pp. 7–23. Available at:
  • Ikuta, J.C. and Latimer, T. (2021) ‘Aristocracy in America: Tocqueville on White Supremacy’, The Journal of Politics, 83(2), pp. 547–559. Available at:
  • Jagmohan, D. (2015) ‘Race and the social contract: Charles Mills on the consensual foundations of white supremacy’, Politics, Groups, and Identities, 3(3), pp. 488–503. Available at:
  • Johnstone, F.A. (1970) ‘WHITE PROSPERITY AND WHITE SUPREMACY IN SOUTH AFRICA TODAY’, African Affairs, 69(275), pp. 124–140. Available at:
  • Kim, N.Y. (2022) ‘Globalizing racial triangulation: including the people and nations of color on which White supremacy depends’, Politics, Groups, and Identities, 10(3), pp. 468–474. Available at:
  • Krell, M.R. (2016) ‘Fear-Driven Donations: Campaign Contributions as Mechanisms for Entrenching White Supremacy*: Fear-Driven Donations’, Social Science Quarterly, 97(5), pp. 1119–1129. Available at:
  • Lucassen, G. and Lubbers, M. (2012) ‘Who Fears What? Explaining Far-Right-Wing Preference in Europe by Distinguishing Perceived Cultural and Economic Ethnic Threats’, Comparative Political Studies, 45(5), pp. 547–574. Available at:
  • Mayer, N. (2013) ‘From Jean-Marie to Marine Le Pen: Electoral Change on the Far Right’, Parliamentary Affairs, 66(1), pp. 160–178. Available at:
  • McGann, A.J. and Kitschelt, H. (2005) ‘The Radical Right in The Alps: Evolution of Support for the Swiss SVP and Austrian FPÖ’, Party Politics, 11(2), pp. 147–171. Available at:
  • Meier, A.A. (2020) ‘The Idea of Terror: Institutional Reproduction in Government Responses to Political Violence’, International Studies Quarterly, 64(3), pp. 499–509. Available at:
  • Mosca, L. and Tronconi, F. (2019) ‘Beyond left and right: the eclectic populism of the Five Star Movement’, West European Politics, 42(6), pp. 1258–1283. Available at:
  • Mughan, A. and Paxton, P. (2006) ‘Anti-Immigrant Sentiment, Policy Preferences and Populist Party Voting in Australia’, British Journal of Political Science, 36(2), pp. 341–358. Available at:
  • Myers, E. (2019) ‘Beyond the Psychological Wage: Du Bois on White Dominion’, Political Theory, 47(1), pp. 6–31. Available at:
  • Pallister-Wilkins, P. (2021) ‘Saving the souls of white folk: Humanitarianism as white supremacy’, Security Dialogue, 52(1_suppl), pp. 98–106. Available at:
  • Price, J. (2013) ‘Canada, white supremacy, and the twinning of empires’, International Journal: Canada’s Journal of Global Policy Analysis, 68(4), pp. 628–638. Available at:
  • Rydgren, J. (2004) ‘Explaining the Emergence of Radical Right-Wing Populist Parties: The Case of Denmark’, West European Politics, 27(3), pp. 474–502. Available at:
  • Sabaratnam, M. (2020) ‘Is IR Theory White? Racialised Subject-Positioning in Three Canonical Texts’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 49(1), pp. 3–31. Available at:
  • Shulman, G. (2008) ‘Thinking Authority Democratically: Prophetic Practices, White Supremacy, and Democratic Politics’, Political Theory, 36(5), pp. 708–734. Available at:
  • Spence, L.K. (2020) ‘Ella Baker and the challenge of black rule’, Contemporary Political Theory, 19(4), pp. 551–572. Available at:
  • Subotic, J. and Vucetic, S. (2019) ‘Performing solidarity: whiteness and status-seeking in the non-aligned world’, Journal of International Relations and Development, 22(3), pp. 722–743. Available at:
  • van Spanje, J. (2011) ‘The Wrong and the Right: A Comparative Analysis of “Anti-Immigration” and “Far Right” Parties’, Government and Opposition, 46(3), pp. 293–320. Available at:
  • Vasilopoulos, P. et al. (2019) ‘Fear, Anger, and Voting for the Far Right: Evidence From the November 13, 2015 Paris Terror Attacks: Fear, Anger, and Voting for the Far Right’, Political Psychology, 40(4), pp. 679–704. Available at:
  • Veugelers, J. and Magnan, A. (2005) ‘Conditions of far-right strength in contemporary Western Europe: an application of Kitschelt’s theory*’, European Journal of Political Research, 44(6), pp. 837–860. Available at:
  • Zenn, J. (2022) ‘War on terror 2.0: threat inflation and conflation of far-right and white supremacist terrorism after the capitol “Insurrection”’, Critical Studies on Terrorism, pp. 1–36. Available at:
  • Zuckerwise, L. (2016) ‘“There Can Be No Loser”: White Supremacy and the Cruelty of Compromise’, American Political Thought, 5(3), pp. 467–493. Available at:

Lecture 6: Other Prefixes of Terrorism

Core Required Reading

  1. Miller, S., Henschke, A. and Feltes, J.F. (2021) Counter-Terrorism. Edward Elgar Publishing. Available at:
  • Collective moral responsibility and chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear terrorism: the case of phosphine
  1. Boylan, B.M. (2016) ‘What drives ethnic terrorist campaigns? A view at the group level of analysis’, Conflict Management and Peace Science, 33(3), pp. 250–272. Available at:
  2. Early, B.R., Fuhrmann, M. and Li, Q. (2013) ‘Atoms for Terror? Nuclear Programs and Non-Catastrophic Nuclear and Radiological Terrorism’, British Journal of Political Science, 43(4), pp. 915–936. Available at:
  3. Gross, M.L., Canetti, D. and Vashdi, D.R. (2016) ‘The psychological effects of cyber terrorism’, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 72(5), pp. 284–291. Available at:
  4. Kittelsen, S. (2009) ‘Conceptualizing Biorisk: Dread Risk and the Threat of Bioterrorism in Europe’, Security Dialogue, 40(1), pp. 51–71. Available at:
  5. Nincic, D.J. (2005) ‘The challenge of maritime terrorism: Threat identification, WMD and regime response’, Journal of Strategic Studies, 28(4), pp. 619–644. Available at:
  6. O’Shea, P. (2015) ‘Dodgy dumplings and lethal liver: risk, food terrorism, and Sino–Japanese relations’, The Pacific Review, 28(2), pp. 303–321. Available at:
  7. Volders, B. (2021) ‘Building the Bomb: A Further Exploration of an Organizational Approach to Nuclear Terrorism’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 33(5), pp. 1012–1031. Available at:
  8. Weiss, L. (2015) ‘On fear and nuclear terrorism’, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 71(2), pp. 75–87. Available at:

Recommended Reading

  • Aldrich, R.J. (2009) ‘US–European Intelligence Co-Operation on Counter-Terrorism: Low Politics and Compulsion’, The British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 11(1), pp. 122–139. Available at:
  • Auerswald, D.P. (2006) ‘Deterring Nonstate WMD Attacks’, Political Science Quarterly, 121(4), pp. 543–568. Available at:
  • Barzegar, K. (2014) ‘Nuclear Terrorism: An Iranian Perspective’, Middle East Policy, 21(1), pp. 29–40. Available at:
  • Campbell, J.K. (1997) ‘Excerpts from research study “weapons of mass destruction and terrorism: Proliferation by non‐state actors”’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 9(2), pp. 24–50. Available at:
  • Cetinyan, R. (2002) ‘Ethnic Bargaining in the Shadow of Third-Party Intervention’, International Organization, 56(3), pp. 645–677. Available at:
  • Crelinsten, R.D. (1999) ‘Terrorism and counter‐terrorism in a multi‐centric world: Challenges and opportunities’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 11(4), pp. 170–196. Available at:
  • Dowley, K.M. and Silver, B.D. (2000) ‘SUBNATIONAL AND NATIONAL LOYALTY: CROSS-NATIONAL COMPARISONS’, International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 12(4), pp. 357–371. Available at:
  • Downes, R.J. and Hobbs, C. (2017) ‘Nuclear terrorism and virtual risk: Implications for prediction and the utility of models’, European Journal of International Security, 2(2), pp. 203–222. Available at:
  • Ellis, P.D. (2014) ‘Lone Wolf Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction: An Examination of Capabilities and Countermeasures’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 26(1), pp. 211–225. Available at:
  • Garrett, L. (2001) ‘The Nightmare of Bioterrorism’, Foreign Affairs, 80(1), p. 76. Available at:
  • Gleditsch, K.S. and Polo, S.M.T. (2016) ‘Ethnic inclusion, democracy, and terrorism’, Public Choice, 169(3–4), pp. 207–229. Available at:
  • Gressang IV, D. (2001) ‘Audience and Message: Assessing Terrorist WMD Potential’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 13(3), pp. 83–106. Available at:
  • Harland, D. (2010) ‘Kosovo and the UN’, Survival, 52(5), pp. 75–98. Available at:
  • Hennayake, S.K. (1992) ‘Interactive ethnonationalism’, Political Geography, 11(6), pp. 526–549. Available at:
  • Heupel, M. (2008) ‘Combining Hierarchical and Soft Modes of Governance: The UN Security Council’s Approach to Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation after 9/11’, Cooperation and Conflict, 43(1), pp. 7–29. Available at:
  • Jacobs, S.S. (1998) ‘The nuclear threat as a terrorist option’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 10(4), pp. 149–163. Available at:
  • Jenkins, B. (2006) ‘Combating Nuclear Terrorism: Addressing Nonstate Actor Motivations’, The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 607(1), pp. 33–42. Available at:
  • Joyner, C.C. (2007) ‘Countering Nuclear Terrorism: A Conventional Response’, European Journal of International Law, 18(2), pp. 225–251. Available at:
  • Kelle, A. (2013) ‘The Third Review Conference of the Chemical Weapons Convention and beyond: key themes and the prospects of incremental change’, International Affairs, 89(1), pp. 143–158. Available at:
  • Koblentz, G.D. and Kiesel, S. (2021) ‘The COVID-19 Pandemic: Catalyst or Complication for Bioterrorism?’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, pp. 1–27. Available at:
  • Koehler, D. and Popella, P. (2020) ‘Mapping Far-right Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Terrorism Efforts in the West: Characteristics of Plots and Perpetrators for Future Threat Assessment’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 32(8), pp. 1666–1690. Available at:
  • Korbatov, A.B., Suzuki, E. and Goldblum, B.L. (2015) ‘The fight against nuclear terrorism needs global cooperation—and the IAEA’, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 71(5), pp. 67–76. Available at:
  • Lieber, K.A. and Press, D.G. (2013) ‘Why States Won’t Give Nuclear Weapons to Terrorists’, International Security, 38(1), pp. 80–104. Available at:
  • Litwak, R.S. (2017) ‘Recalibrating Deterrence to Prevent Nuclear Terrorism’, The Washington Quarterly, 40(1), pp. 55–70. Available at:
  • Lugar, R.G. (2002) ‘Redefining NATO’S mission: Preventing WMD terrorism’, The Washington Quarterly, 25(3), pp. 5–13. Available at:
  • Marlo, F.H. (1999) ‘WMD terrorism and US intelligence collection’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 11(3), pp. 53–71. Available at:
  • Mason, T.D. (2003) ‘STRUCTURES OF ETHNIC CONFLICT: REVOLUTION VERSUS SECESSION IN RWANDA AND SRI LANKA’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 15(4), pp. 83–113. Available at:
  • Modongal, S. (2016) ‘Deterrence of nuclear terrorism in the context of South Asia’, Defense & Security Analysis, 32(4), pp. 354–360. Available at:
  • Newman, A. (2004) ‘Arms Control, Proliferation and Terrorism: The Bush Administration’s Post-September 11 Security Strategy’, Journal of Strategic Studies, 27(1), pp. 59–88. Available at:
  • O’Neil, A. (2003) ‘Terrorist use of weapons of mass destruction: How serious is the threat?’, Australian Journal of International Affairs, 57(1), pp. 99–112. Available at:
  • Parachini, J. (2003) ‘Putting WMD terrorism into perspective’, The Washington Quarterly, 26(4), pp. 37–50. Available at:
  • Pluta, A.M. and Zimmerman, P.D. (2006) ‘Nuclear terrorism: A disheartening dissent’, Survival, 48(2), pp. 55–69. Available at:
  • Quillen, C. (2001) ‘Terrorism with Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Congressional Response’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 13(1), pp. 47–65. Available at:
  • Rebmann, T. and Mohr, L.B. (2008) ‘Missouri Nurses’ Bioterrorism Preparedness’, Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science, 6(3), pp. 243–252. Available at:
  • Saradzhyan, S. (2006) ‘Russia: Grasping the Reality of Nuclear Terror’, The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 607(1), pp. 64–77. Available at:
  • Schelling, T.C. (1982) ‘Thinking about Nuclear Terrorism’, International Security, 6(4), p. 61. Available at:
  • Schmid, A.P. (1999) ‘Terrorism and the use of weapons of mass destruction: From where the risk?’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 11(4), pp. 106–132. Available at:
  • Tucker, J.B. (2012) ‘The Role of the Chemical Weapons Convention in Countering Chemical Terrorism’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 24(1), pp. 105–119. Available at:
  • Zenko, M. (2006) ‘Intelligence Estimates of Nuclear Terrorism’, The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 607(1), pp. 87–102. Available at:

Lecture 7: Counterterrorism Strategy – European Union

Core Required Reading

  1. Kaunert, C., MacKenzie, A. and Léonard, S. (2022) The European Union as a Global Counter-Terrorism Actor. Edward Elgar Publishing. Available at:
  • Introduction to The European Union as a Global Counter-Terrorism Actor
  • The collective securitization of terrorism in the EU
  • Institutions in EU counter-terrorism
  • EU counter-terrorism and South Asia
  • EU counter-terrorism, Iraq, and Syria
  • Conclusion to The European Union as a Global Counter-Terrorism Actor

Recommended Reading

  • Argomaniz, J. (2015) ‘European Union responses to terrorist use of the Internet’, Cooperation and Conflict, 50(2), pp. 250–268. Available at:
  • Argomaniz, J. (2015) ‘The European Union Policies on the Protection of Infrastructure from Terrorist Attacks: A Critical Assessment’, Intelligence and National Security, 30(2–3), pp. 259–280. Available at:
  • Argomaniz, J., Bures, O. and Kaunert, C. (2015) ‘A Decade of EU Counter-Terrorism and Intelligence: A Critical Assessment’, Intelligence and National Security, 30(2–3), pp. 191–206. Available at:
  • Baker-Beall, C. (2014) ‘The evolution of the European Union’s “fight against terrorism” discourse: Constructing the terrorist “other”’, Cooperation and Conflict, 49(2), pp. 212–238. Available at:
  • Baker‐Beall, C. and Mott, G. (2022) ‘Understanding the European Union’s Perception of the Threat of Cyberterrorism: A Discursive Analysis’, JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 60(4), pp. 1086–1105. Available at:
  • Ben Jaffel, H. (2020) ‘Britain’s European connection in counter-terrorism intelligence cooperation: everyday practices of police liaison officers’, Intelligence and National Security, 35(7), pp. 1007–1025. Available at:
  • Bures, O. (2006) ‘EU Counterterrorism Policy: A Paper Tiger?’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 18(1), pp. 57–78. Available at:
  • Bures, O. (2015) ‘Ten Years of EU’s Fight against Terrorist Financing: A Critical Assessment’, Intelligence and National Security, 30(2–3), pp. 207–233. Available at:
  • Bures, O. (2020) ‘EU’s Response to Foreign Fighters: New Threat, Old Challenges?’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 32(4), pp. 789–806. Available at:
  • Bures, O. (2022) ‘The Counterterrorism Coordinator and the Commissioner for the Security Union: Does the European Union Need Two Top-level Counterterrorism Officials?’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 34(4), pp. 661–681. Available at:
  • Bures, O. and Bätz, S. (2021) ‘European Union and the fight against terrorism: a differentiated integration theory perspective’, Asia Europe Journal, 19(1), pp. 75–104. Available at:
  • Coolsaet, R. (2010) ‘EU counterterrorism strategy: value added or chimera?’, International Affairs, 86(4), pp. 857–873. Available at:
  • Cross, M.K.D. (2017) ‘Counter-terrorism in the EU’s external relations’, Journal of European Integration, 39(5), pp. 609–624. Available at:
  • Den Boer, M. and Wiegand, I. (2015) ‘From Convergence to Deep Integration: Evaluating the Impact of EU Counter-Terrorism Strategies on Domestic Arenas’, Intelligence and National Security, 30(2–3), pp. 377–401. Available at:
  • Durac, V. (2018) ‘Counterterrorism and democracy: EU policy in the Middle East and North Africa after the uprisings’, Mediterranean Politics, 23(1), pp. 103–121. Available at:
  • Epifanio, M. and Plümper, T. (2018) ‘European integration and the race to the top in counterterrorist regulations’, Journal of European Public Policy, 25(5), pp. 787–799. Available at:
  • Erisen, C., Vasilopoulou, S. and Kentmen-Cin, C. (2020) ‘Emotional reactions to immigration and support for EU cooperation on immigration and terrorism’, Journal of European Public Policy, 27(6), pp. 795–813. Available at:
  • Foret, F. and Markoviti, M. (2020) ‘The EU counter-radicalisation strategy as “business as usual”? How European political routine resists radical religion’, Journal of European Integration, 42(4), pp. 547–563. Available at:
  • Gasztold, A. and Gasztold, P. (2022) ‘The Polish Counterterrorism System and Hybrid Warfare Threats’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 34(6), pp. 1259–1276. Available at:
  • Hamilton, C. (2019) ‘Counter-Terrorism in France’, in Hamilton, C., Contagion, Counter-Terrorism and Criminology. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 75–108. Available at:
  • Hedling, E. (2021) ‘Transforming practices of diplomacy: the European External Action Service and digital disinformation’, International Affairs, 97(3), pp. 841–859. Available at:
  • Hegemann, H. and Kahl, M. (2018) ‘Security governance and the limits of depoliticisation: EU policies to protect critical infrastructures and prevent radicalisation’, Journal of International Relations and Development, 21(3), pp. 552–579. Available at:
  • Henökl, T. and Jakobsen, T.G. (2022) ‘The rising fear of terrorism and the emergence of a European security governance space: citizen perceptions and EU counterterrorism cooperation’, Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 30(3), pp. 536–551. Available at:
  • Ilbiz, E., Kaunert, C. and Anagnostakis, D. (2017) ‘The counterterrorism agreements of Europol with third countries: Data protection and power asymmetry’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 29(6), pp. 967–984. Available at:
  • Kaunert, C. (2009) ‘The External Dimension of EU Counter-Terrorism Relations: Competences, Interests, and Institutions’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 22(1), pp. 41–61. Available at:
  • Kaunert, C. and Léonard, S. (2011) ‘EU Counterterrorism and the European Neighbourhood Policy: An Appraisal of the Southern Dimension’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 23(2), pp. 286–309. Available at:
  • Kudlenko, A. (2019) ‘The Western Balkan counter-terrorism initiative (WBCTi) and the capability of the EU as a counter-terrorism actor’, Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 27(4), pp. 503–514. Available at:
  • Le´onard, S. (2015) ‘Border Controls as a Dimension of the European Union’s Counter-Terrorism Policy: A Critical Assessment’, Intelligence and National Security, 30(2–3), pp. 306–332. Available at:
  • Léonard, S. and Kaunert, C. (2012) ‘“Between a rock and a hard place?”: The European Union’s financial sanctions against suspected terrorists, multilateralism and human rights’, Cooperation and Conflict, 47(4), pp. 473–494. Available at:
  • Liedlbauer, L. (2021) ‘Politicising European counter-terrorism: the role of NGOs’, European Security, 30(3), pp. 485–503. Available at:
  • Mackenzie, A. et al. (2013) ‘The European Union Counter-terrorism Coordinator and the External Dimension of the European Union Counter-terrorism Policy’, Perspectives on European Politics and Society, 14(3), pp. 325–338. Available at:
  • Matera, M. (2018) ‘Enhanced European Union–Australia security cooperation through crisis management’, Australian Journal of International Affairs, 72(3), pp. 224–239. Available at:
  • Melhuish, F. and Heath-Kelly, C. (2022) ‘Fighting terrorism at the local level: the European Union, radicalisation prevention and the negotiation of subsidiarity’, European Security, 31(2), pp. 313–333. Available at:
  • Monar, J. (2015) ‘The EU as an International Counter-terrorism Actor: Progress and Constraints’, Intelligence and National Security, 30(2–3), pp. 333–356. Available at:
  • Sellier, E. (2018) ‘The European External Action Service, Counterterrorism and the Imperative of Coherence’, The International Spectator, 53(4), pp. 129–151. Available at:
  • Skare, E. (2022) ‘Staying safe by being good? The EU’s normative decline as a security actor in the Middle East’, European Journal of International Security, pp. 1–17. Available at:

Lecture 8: Counterterrorism Strategy – USA, United Kingdom, India

Core Required Reading

  1. Burke, P., Elnakhala, D. and Miller, S. (2021) Global Jihadist Terrorism. Edward Elgar Publishing. Available at:
  • National counter-terrorism responses: United States of America
  • National counter-terrorism responses: United Kingdom
  • National counter-terrorism responses: India

Recommended Reading

  • Ahmad, I. (2017) ‘Injustice and the New World Order: an anthropological perspective on “terrorism” in India’, Critical Studies on Terrorism, 10(1), pp. 115–137. Available at:
  • Angstrom, J. (2011) ‘Mapping the Competing Historical Analogies of the War on Terrorism: The Bush Presidency’, International Relations, 25(2), pp. 224–242. Available at:
  • Archer, T. (2009) ‘Welcome to the Umma : The British State and its Muslim Citizens Since 9/11’, Cooperation and Conflict, 44(3), pp. 329–347. Available at:
  • Borooah, V.K. (2009) ‘Terrorist Incidents in India, 1998–2004: A Quantitative Analysis of Fatality Rates’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 21(3), pp. 476–498. Available at:
  • Boyle, M.J. (2008) ‘The war on terror in American grand strategy’, International Affairs, 84(2), pp. 191–209. Available at:
  • Buzan, B. (2006) ‘Will the “global war on terrorism” be the new Cold War?’, International Affairs, 82(6), pp. 1101–1118. Available at:
  • Byman, D. (2007) ‘US Counter–terrorism Options: A Taxonomy’, Survival, 49(3), pp. 121–150. Available at:
  • Campbell, J.E. (2005) ‘Why Bush Won the Presidential Election of 2004: Incumbency, Ideology, Terrorism, and Turnout’, Political Science Quarterly, 120(2), pp. 219–241. Available at:
  • Chalk, P. (2022) ‘Domestic Counter-Terrorist Intelligence Structures in the United Kingdom, France, Canada and Australia’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 45(7), pp. 626–658. Available at:
  • Chandra, V. (2020) ‘India’s Counter-Terrorism Diplomacy at the United Nations: Progress and Problems’, India Quarterly: A Journal of International Affairs, 76(1), pp. 40–57. Available at:
  • Clini, C. (2015) ‘International terrorism? Indian popular cinema and the politics of terror’, Critical Studies on Terrorism, 8(3), pp. 337–357. Available at:
  • Coe, K. et al. (2007) ‘Masculinity as Political Strategy: George W. Bush, the “War on Terrorism,” and an Echoing Press’, Journal of Women, Politics & Policy, 29(1), pp. 31–55. Available at:
  • Cram, I. (2006) ‘Regulating the Media: Some Neglected Freedom of Expression Issues in the United Kingdom’s Counter-Terrorism Strategy’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 18(2), pp. 335–355. Available at:
  • Croft, S. and Moore, C. (2010) ‘The evolution of threat narratives in the age of terror: understanding terrorist threats in Britain’, International Affairs, 86(4), pp. 821–835. Available at:
  • Cronin, A.K. (2014) ‘The “War on Terrorism”: What Does it Mean to Win?’, Journal of Strategic Studies, 37(2), pp. 174–197. Available at:
  • Dale, S.F. (1988) ‘Religious Suicide in Islamic Asia: Anticolonial Terrorism in India, Indonesia, and the Philippines’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 32(1), pp. 37–59. Available at:
  • Dmello, J.R., Perliger, A. and Sweeney, M. (2022) ‘The Violence of Political Empowerment: Electoral Success and the Facilitation of Terrorism in the Republic of India’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 34(7), pp. 1281–1304. Available at:
  • Dunn, D.H. (2003) ‘Myths, Motivations and “Misunderestimations”: the Bush Administration and Iraq’, International Affairs, 79(2), pp. 279–297. Available at:
  • Entman, R.M. (2003) ‘Cascading Activation: Contesting the White House’s Frame After 9/11’, Political Communication, 20(4), pp. 415–432. Available at:
  • Farag, W.Z. (2020) ‘American security strategy towards terrorism after September 11 attacks’, Review of Economics and Political Science, 5(4), pp. 323–333. Available at:
  • Fisher, D.G., Dugan, L. and Chenoweth, E. (2019) ‘Does US presidential rhetoric affect asymmetric political violence?’, Critical Studies on Terrorism, 12(1), pp. 132–150. Available at:
  • Gearson, J. and Rosemont, H. (2015) ‘CONTEST as Strategy: Reassessing Britain’s Counterterrorism Approach’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 38(12), pp. 1038–1064. Available at:
  • Gelber, K. (2017) ‘Incitement to Hatred and Countering Terrorism: Policy Confusion in the UK and Australia’, Parliamentary Affairs [Preprint]. Available at:
  • Hazelton, J.L. (2017) ‘Drone Strikes and Grand Strategy: Toward a Political Understanding of the Uses of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Attacks in US Security Policy’, Journal of Strategic Studies, 40(1–2), pp. 68–91. Available at:
  • Hirsh, M. (2002) ‘Bush and the World’, Foreign Affairs, 81(5), p. 18. Available at:
  • Huddy, L. et al. (2005) ‘Threat, Anxiety, and Support of Antiterrorism Policies’, American Journal of Political Science, 49(3), pp. 593–608. Available at:
  • Ide, T. (2017) ‘Terrorism in the textbook: a comparative analysis of terrorism discourses in Germany, India, Kenya and the United States based on school textbooks’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 30(1), pp. 44–66. Available at:
  • Ikenberry, G.J. (2002) ‘America’s Imperial Ambition’, Foreign Affairs, 81(5), p. 44. Available at:
  • Jackson, R. (2011) ‘Culture, identity and hegemony: Continuity and (the lack of) change in US counterterrorism policy from Bush to Obama’, International Politics, 48(2–3), pp. 390–411. Available at:
  • Jupp, J. (2022) ‘From Spiral to Stasis? United Kingdom Counter-Terrorism Legislation and Extreme Right-Wing Terrorism’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, pp. 1–21. Available at:
  • Lakhani, S. and James, N. (2021) ‘“Prevent duty”: empirical reflections on the challenges of addressing far-right extremism within secondary schools and colleges in the UK’, Critical Studies on Terrorism, 14(1), pp. 67–89. Available at:
  • Legrand, T. and Jarvis, L. (2014) ‘Enemies of the state: Proscription powers and their use in the United Kingdom’, British Politics, 9(4), pp. 450–471. Available at:
  • Malcolm, J.A. (2016) ‘Responding to international terrorism: The securitisation of the United Kingdom’s ports’, The British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 18(2), pp. 443–462. Available at:
  • McCRISKEN, T. (2011) ‘Ten years on: Obama’s war on terrorism in rhetoric and practice’, International Affairs, 87(4), pp. 781–801. Available at:
  • Newman, A. (2011) ‘Transatlantic flight fights: multi-level governance, actor entrepreneurship and international anti-terrorism cooperation’, Review of International Political Economy, 18(4), pp. 481–505. Available at:
  • P. C., D. (2020) ‘India’s PSYWAR Against Islamic Terrorism: A Trident Strategy’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 32(3), pp. 558–581. Available at:
  • Pantucci, R. (2010) ‘A contest to democracy? How the UK has responded to the current terrorist threat’, Democratization, 17(2), pp. 251–271. Available at:
  • Piazza, J.A. (2008) ‘Do Democracy and Free Markets Protect Us From Terrorism?’, International Politics, 45(1), pp. 72–91. Available at:
  • Piazza, J.A. (2009) ‘Economic Development, Poorly Managed Political Conflict and Terrorism in India’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 32(5), pp. 406–419. Available at:
  • Piazza, J.A. (2010) ‘Terrorism and Party Systems in the States of India’, Security Studies, 19(1), pp. 99–123. Available at:
  • Riedel, B. (2008) ‘Pakistan and Terror: The Eye of the Storm’, The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 618(1), pp. 31–45. Available at:
  • Sasikumar, K. (2010) ‘State agency in the time of the global war on terror: India and the counter-terrorism regime’, Review of International Studies, 36(3), pp. 615–638. Available at:
  • Shanaah, S. (2022) ‘Alienation or Cooperation? British Muslims’ Attitudes to and Engagement in Counter-Terrorism and Counter-Extremism’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 34(1), pp. 71–92. Available at:
  • Shepherd, A. (2017) ‘Extremism, Free Speech and the Rule of Law: Evaluating the Compliance of Legislation Restricting Extremist Expressions with Article 19 ICCPR’, Utrecht Journal of International and European Law, 33(85), pp. 62–83. Available at:
  • Shultz, R. and Vogt, A. (2003) ‘It’s war! fighting post-11 september global terrorism through a doctrine of preemption’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 15(1), pp. 1–30. Available at:
  • Silvestri, M. (2009) ‘The Bomb, Bhadralok, Bhagavad Gita , and Dan Breen: Terrorism in Bengal and Its Relation to the European Experience’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 21(1), pp. 1–27. Available at:
  • Siyech, M.S. (2022) ‘Arms Smuggling in India: Exploring Links between Crime and Terrorism’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 45(5–6), pp. 445–462. Available at:
  • Skleparis, D. and Augestad Knudsen, R. (2020) ‘Localising “radicalisation”: Risk assessment practices in Greece and the United Kingdom’, The British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 22(2), pp. 309–327. Available at:
  • Subramaniam, A. (2012) ‘Challenges of Protecting India From Terrorism’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 24(3), pp. 396–414. Available at:
  • Tankel, S. (2014) ‘Indian Jihadism : The Evolving Threat’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 37(7), pp. 567–585. Available at:
  • Tsui, C.-K. (2015) ‘Framing the threat of catastrophic terrorism: Genealogy, discourse and President Clinton’s counterterrorism approach’, International Politics, 52(1), pp. 66–88. Available at:
  • Van Evera, S. (2006) ‘Assessing U.S. Strategy in the War on Terror’, The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 607(1), pp. 10–26. Available at:
  • Verma, R. (2020) ‘Domestic Political Drivers and Chinese Diplomacy: Xinjiang and Counter-Terrorism in South Asia’, Asian Perspective, 44(4), pp. 561–586. Available at:
  • Western, J. (2005) ‘The War over Iraq: Selling War to the American Public’, Security Studies, 14(1), pp. 106–139. Available at:
  • Widmaier, W.W. (2007) ‘Constructing Foreign Policy Crises: Interpretive Leadership in the Cold War and War on Terrorism’, International Studies Quarterly, 51(4), pp. 779–794. Available at:

Lecture 9: Counterterrorism Strategy – Israel

Core Required Reading

  1. Ganor, B. (2021) Israel’s counterterrorism strategy: origins to the present. New York: Columbia University Press (Columbia studies in terrorism and irregular warfare).
  • The Israeli Counterterrorism Strategy and Decision-Making Process Conceptual Models
  • The First Intifada and Activities of the Palestinian Islamist Organizations: The Yitzhak Shamir Administration, 1987–91
  • Countering Terrorism During the Peace Process: The Yitzhak Rabin Administration, 1992–96
  • A Prime Minister’s Assassination and Shifting Counterterrorism Strategies: The Benjamin Netanyahu Administration, 1996–99
  • Confronting the al-Aqsa Intifada: The Ehud Barak and Ariel Sharon Administrations, 1999–2004
  • Disengagement from Gaza and Its Ramifications: The End of the Sharon Administration and the Ehud Olmert Administration, 2005–2008
  • Changes in the Greater Middle East: The Netanyahu Administration, 2009–2018
  • Israel’s Counterterrorism Policy from the Perspective of Israeli Decision Makers
  • Conclusion: The Art of Israeli Counterterrorism
  1. Burke, P., Elnakhala, D. and Miller, S. (2021) Global Jihadist Terrorism. Edward Elgar Publishing. Available at:
  • National counter-terrorism responses: Israel

Recommended Reading

  • Adamsky, D. (Dima) (2017) ‘The Israeli Odyssey toward its National Cyber Security Strategy’, The Washington Quarterly, 40(2), pp. 113–127. Available at:
  • Amara, M.H. (1996) ‘The nature of Islamic fundamentalism in Israel’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 8(2), pp. 155–170. Available at:
  • Barak, O. (2005) ‘The Failure of the Israeli–Palestinian Peace Process, 1993–2000’, Journal of Peace Research, 42(6), pp. 719–736. Available at:
  • Ben Aharon, E. (2021) ‘The “War on Terror” and Public Diplomacy during the Cold War: Israeli–Turkish Relations and the 1980 Military Coup’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, pp. 1–24. Available at:
  • Ben-Dror, E. (2016) ‘The Poets of Marj al-Zuhur: Poetry as the Psychological, Political, and Ideological Weapon of the Hamas Members Deported to Lebanon in 1992’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 28(1), pp. 157–179. Available at:
  • Berda, Y. (2020) ‘Managing “dangerous populations”: How colonial emergency laws shape citizenship’, Security Dialogue, 51(6), pp. 557–578. Available at:
  • Beres, L.R. (2010) ‘Understanding the “Correlation of Forces” in the Middle East: Israel’s Urgent Strategic Imperative’, Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs, 4(1), pp. 77–88. Available at:
  • Cohen, H. and Dudai, R. (2005) ‘Human Rights Dilemmas in Using Informers to Combat Terrorism: The Israeli-Palestinian Case’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 17(1–2), pp. 229–243. Available at:
  • Cunningham, K.J. (2007) ‘Countering Female Terrorism’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 30(2), pp. 113–129. Available at:
  • Daoud, S.A.O. (2019) ‘Israel and the Islamist Challenge: Old Dilemmas, New Approaches’, Politics and Religion, 12(1), pp. 55–80. Available at:
  • Eilam, E. (2016) ‘The Struggle against Hizbullah and Hamas: Israel’s Next Hybrid War’, Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs, 10(2), pp. 247–255. Available at:
  • Frederiksen, H.D. (2003) ‘Water: Israeli Strategy, Implications for Peace and the Viability of Palestine’, Middle East Policy, 10(4), pp. 69–86. Available at:
  • Freilich, C.D. (2015) ‘Why Can’t Israel Win Wars Any More?’, Survival, 57(2), pp. 79–92. Available at:
  • Freilich, C.D. (2017) ‘Israel’s Counter-Terrorism Policy: How Effective?’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 29(2), pp. 359–376. Available at:
  • Frisch, H. (2003) ‘Debating Palestinian strategy in the al-Aqsa intifada’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 15(2), pp. 61–80. Available at:
  • Frisch, H. (2005) ‘Has the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Become Islamic? Fatah, Islam, and the Al-Aqsa Martyrs’ Brigades’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 17(3), pp. 391–406. Available at:
  • Frisch, H. (2006) ‘Motivation or capabilities? Israeli counterterrorism against Palestinian suicide bombings and violence’, Journal of Strategic Studies, 29(5), pp. 843–869. Available at:
  • Getmansky, A. and Sinmazdemir, T. (2018) ‘Settling on Violence: Expansion of Israeli Outposts in the West Bank in Response to Terrorism’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 41(3), pp. 241–259. Available at:
  • Guttmann, A. (2018) ‘Combatting terror in Europe: Euro-Israeli counterterrorism intelligence cooperation in the Club de Berne (1971–1972)’, Intelligence and National Security, 33(2), pp. 158–175. Available at:
  • Hatz, S. (2020) ‘Selective or collective? Palestinian perceptions of targeting in house demolition’, Conflict Management and Peace Science, 37(5), pp. 515–535. Available at:
  • Hitman, G. and Kertcher, C. (2021) ‘Explaining a State Status Quo and Non-State Revisionist Dynamic: The Case of the Conflict Between Hamas and Israel 2007–2019’, Ethnopolitics, pp. 1–17. Available at:
  • Inbar, E. (1991) ‘Israel’s Small War: The Military Response to the Intifada’, Armed Forces & Society, 18(1), pp. 29–50. Available at:
  • Inbar, E. (1998) ‘Israeli National Security, 1973-96’, The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 555(1), pp. 62–81. Available at:
  • Karasova, T.A. (2019) ‘New Trends in Israel Regional Policy (2009-2019)’, MGIMO Review of International Relations, 12(4), pp. 180–200. Available at:
  • Larkin, C. and Nasasra, M. (2021) ‘The “inclusion-moderation” illusion: re-framing the Islamic movement inside Israel’, Democratization, 28(4), pp. 742–761. Available at:
  • Machold, R. (2016) ‘Learning from Israel? “26/11” and the anti-politics of urban security governance’, Security Dialogue, 47(4), pp. 275–291. Available at:
  • Magen, C. (2015) ‘Media Strategies and Manipulations of Intelligence Services: The Case of Israel’, The International Journal of Press/Politics, 20(2), pp. 247–265. Available at:
  • Marsili, M. (2016) ‘The Islamic State: A Clash within the Muslim Civilization for the New Caliphate’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 39(2), pp. 85–105. Available at:
  • Morag, N. (2005) ‘Measuring Success in Coping with Terrorism: The Israeli Case’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 28(4), pp. 307–320. Available at:
  • Pedahzur, A. and Ranstorp, M. (2001) ‘A Tertiary Model for Countering Terrorism in Liberal Democracies: The Case of Israel’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 13(2), pp. 1–26. Available at:
  • Petrelli, N. (2013) ‘Deterring Insurgents: Culture, Adaptation and the Evolution of Israeli Counterinsurgency, 1987–2005’, Journal of Strategic Studies, 36(5), pp. 666–691. Available at:
  • Rowley, C.K. and Taylor, J. (2006) ‘The Israel and Palestine land settlement problem, 1948–2005: An analytical history’, Public Choice, 128(1–2), pp. 77–90. Available at:
  • Shamir, J. and Shikaki, K. (2002) ‘Self–Serving Perceptions of Terrorism Among Israelis and Palestinians’, Political Psychology, 23(3), pp. 537–557. Available at:
  • Silber, E. (2010) ‘Israel’s Policy of House Demolitions During the First Intifada, 1987–1993’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 23(1), pp. 89–107. Available at:
  • Slater, J. (2012) ‘Just War Moral Philosophy and the 2008–09 Israeli Campaign in Gaza’, International Security, 37(2), pp. 44–80. Available at:

Lecture 10: Intelligence agencies

Core Required Reading

  1. Boer, M.D. (2015) ‘Counter-Terrorism, Security and Intelligence in the EU: Governance Challenges for Collection, Exchange and Analysis’, Intelligence and National Security, 30(2–3), pp. 402–419. Available at:
  2. Coulthart, S. (2016) ‘Why do analysts use structured analytic techniques? An in-depth study of an American intelligence agency’, Intelligence and National Security, 31(7), pp. 933–948. Available at:
  3. Foley, F. (2009) ‘The expansion of intelligence agency mandates: British counter-terrorism in comparative perspective’, Review of International Studies, 35(4), pp. 983–995. Available at:
  4. Guttmann, A. (2021) ‘Turning oil into blood: Western intelligence, Libyan covert actions, and Palestinian terrorism (1973-74)’, Journal of Strategic Studies, pp. 1–28. Available at:
  5. Lowe, D. (2016) ‘Surveillance and International Terrorism Intelligence Exchange: Balancing the Interests of National Security and Individual Liberty’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 28(4), pp. 653–673. Available at:
  6. Müller-Wille, B. (2007) ‘The Effect of International Terrorism on EU Intelligence Co-operation: THE EFFECT OF INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM ON EU INTELLIGENCE CO-OPERATION’, JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 46(1), pp. 49–73. Available at:
  7. Stevens, T. (2015) ‘Security and Surveillance in Virtual Worlds: Who Is Watching the Warlocks and Why?’, International Political Sociology, 9(3), pp. 230–247. Available at:
  8. Walby, K. et al. (2016) ‘Interrogating National Security, Surveillance, and Terror in Canada and Australia’, in R.K. Lippert et al. (eds) National Security, Surveillance and Terror. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 1–22. Available at:

Recommended Reading

  • Aydinli, E. and Tuzuner, M. (2011) ‘Quantifying intelligence cooperation: The United States International Intelligence Behavior (USIIB) dataset’, Journal of Peace Research, 48(5), pp. 673–682. Available at:
  • Bensahel, N. (2006) ‘A Coalition of Coalitions: International Cooperation Against Terrorism’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 29(1), pp. 35–49. Available at:
  • Best, S.J., Krueger, B.S. and Pearson-Merkowitz, S. (2012) ‘Al Qaeda Versus Big Brother: Anxiety About Government Monitoring and Support for Domestic Counterterrorism Policies’, Political Behavior, 34(4), pp. 607–625. Available at:
  • Blazakis, J.M. (2022) ‘Reexamining Counterterrorism Approaches’, International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 35(1), pp. 188–190. Available at:
  • Boer, M.D., Hillebrand, C. and Nölke, A. (2007) ‘Legitimacy under Pressure: The European Web of Counter-Terrorism Networks*: LEGITIMACY UNDER PRESSURE’, JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 46(1), pp. 101–124. Available at:
  • Bruneau, T.C. (2008) ‘Democracy and Effectiveness: Adapting Intelligence for the Fight Against Terrorism’, International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 21(3), pp. 448–460. Available at:
  • Cline, L.E. (2016) ‘African Regional Intelligence Cooperation: Problems and Prospects’, International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 29(3), pp. 447–469. Available at:
  • Cormac, R. (2013) ‘Much Ado About Nothing: Terrorism, Intelligence, and the Mechanics of Threat Exaggeration’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 25(3), pp. 476–493. Available at:
  • Cross, M.K.D. (2019) ‘Counter-terrorism & the intelligence network in Europe’, International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice, p. 100368. Available at:
  • Dahl, E.J. (2005) ‘Warning of Terror: Explaining the Failure of Intelligence Against Terrorism’, Journal of Strategic Studies, 28(1), pp. 31–55. Available at:
  • Dover, R. (2020) ‘Adding value to the intelligence community: what role for expert external advice?’, Intelligence and National Security, 35(6), pp. 852–869. Available at:
  • Field, A. (2009) ‘Tracking terrorist networks: problems of intelligence sharing within the UK intelligence community’, Review of International Studies, 35(4), pp. 997–1009. Available at:
  • Finegan, R. (2016) ‘Shadowboxing in the Dark: Intelligence and Counter-Terrorism in Northern Ireland’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 28(3), pp. 497–519. Available at:
  • Gearon, L.F. (2019) ‘Campus conspiracies: security and intelligence engagement with universities from Kent State to counter-terrorism’, Journal of Beliefs & Values, 40(3), pp. 284–302. Available at:
  • Gill, P. (2020) ‘Explaining Intelligence Failure: Rethinking the Recent Terrorist Attacks in Europe’, International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 33(1), pp. 43–67. Available at:
  • Hitz, F.P. and Weiss, B.J. (2004) ‘Helping the CIA and FBI Connect the Dots in the War on Terror’, International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 17(1), pp. 1–41. Available at:
  • Ilardi, G.J. (2008) ‘Al Qaeda’s Operational Intelligence—A Key Prerequisite to Action’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 31(12), pp. 1072–1102. Available at:
  • Ilardi, G.J. (2009) ‘The 9/11 Attacks—A Study of Al Qaeda’s Use of Intelligence and Counterintelligence’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 32(3), pp. 171–187. Available at:
  • Jasper, S.E. (2017) ‘U.S. Cyber Threat Intelligence Sharing Frameworks’, International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 30(1), pp. 53–65. Available at:
  • Motley, J.B. (1986) ‘International Terrorism: A Challenge for U.S. Intelligence’, International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 1(1), pp. 83–96. Available at:
  • Mott, G. (2016) ‘Terror from behind the keyboard: conceptualising faceless detractors and guarantors of security in cyberspace’, Critical Studies on Terrorism, 9(1), pp. 33–53. Available at:
  • Nomikos, J.M. (2005) ‘A European Union Intelligence Service for Confronting Terrorism’, International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 18(2), pp. 191–203. Available at:
  • Nomikos, J.M. (2007) ‘Terrorism, Media, and Intelligence in Greece: Capturing the 17 November Group’, International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 20(1), pp. 65–78. Available at:
  • Regens, J.L. et al. (2016) ‘Terrorism-Centric Behavior Recognition and Adversarial Threat Forecasting’, International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 29(2), pp. 328–340. Available at:
  • Rudner, M. (2004) ‘Hunters and Gatherers: The Intelligence Coalition Against Islamic Terrorism’, International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 17(2), pp. 193–230. Available at:
  • Rudner, M. (2013) ‘Cyber-Threats to Critical National Infrastructure: An Intelligence Challenge’, International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 26(3), pp. 453–481. Available at:
  • Rye Olsen, G. (2018) ‘Transatlantic cooperation on terrorism and Islamist radicalisation in Africa: the Franco-American axis’, European Security, 27(1), pp. 41–57. Available at:
  • Sanchez, S.E. (2015) ‘Spider Web: Al-Qaeda’s Link to the Intelligence Agencies of the Major Powers’, International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 28(3), pp. 429–448. Available at:
  • Segell, G. (2022) ‘Israel’s Intelligence gathering and analysis for the target assassination of Baha Abu al-Ata (2019)’, Defense & Security Analysis, 38(1), pp. 53–73. Available at:
  • Shaffer, R. (2015) ‘Unraveling India’s Foreign Intelligence: The Origins and Evolution of the Research and Analysis Wing’, International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 28(2), pp. 252–289. Available at:
  • Shore, J.J.M. (2006) ‘Intelligence Review and Oversight in Post-9/11 Canada’, International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 19(3), pp. 456–479. Available at:
  • Shultz, R. (2018) ‘Post-9/11 wartime intelligence analysis’, Intelligence and National Security, 33(7), pp. 974–998. Available at:
  • Sullivan, J.P. and Wirtz, J.J. (2008) ‘Terrorism Early Warning and Counterterrorism Intelligence’, International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 21(1), pp. 13–25. Available at:
  • Trim, P.R.J. (2005) ‘The GISES Model for Counteracting Organized Crime and International Terrorism’, International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 18(3), pp. 451–472. Available at:
  • Tuinier, P. (2021) ‘Explaining the depth and breadth of international intelligence cooperation: towards a comprehensive understanding’, Intelligence and National Security, 36(1), pp. 116–138. Available at:
  • Van Puyvelde, D. (2020) ‘European Intelligence Agendas and the Way Forward’, International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 33(3), pp. 506–513. Available at:
  • Wagner, A. (2007) ‘Intelligence for Counter‐Terrorism: Technology and Methods’, Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, 2(2), pp. 48–61. Available at:
  • Yitzhak, R. (2016) ‘The War Against Terrorism and For Stability of the Hashemite Regime: Jordanian Intelligence Challenges in the 21st Century’, International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 29(2), pp. 213–235. Available at:

Lecture 11: Morality of Counterterrorism

Core Required Reading

  1. Miller, S., Henschke, A. and Feltes, J.F. (2021) Counter-Terrorism. Edward Elgar Publishing. Available at:
  • Kill, wound or capture: ethics considerations for counter-terrorism operations
  • Accountability for targeted killing
  • Interrogation ethics in counter-terror operations
  • Preventive detention of terrorists
  • Use of stings in counter-terrorism: entrapment and ethics
  • Counter-terrorism, social media and the regulation of extremist content
  • Counter-terrorism and PSYOP
  • From need to share to need to care: information aggregation and the need to care about how surveillance technologies are used for counter-terrorism
  • Bulk data collection, national security and ethics
  • Collective moral responsibility and chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear terrorism: the case of phosphine

Recommended Reading

  • Afxentiou, A. (2018) ‘A history of drones: moral(e) bombing and state terrorism’, Critical Studies on Terrorism, 11(2), pp. 301–320. Available at:
  • Alonso, R. and Reinares, F. (2005) ‘Terrorism, Human Rights and Law Enforcement in Spain’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 17(1–2), pp. 265–278. Available at:
  • Asad, T. (2010) ‘Thinking about terrorism and just war’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 23(1), pp. 3–24. Available at:
  • Atran, S. (2006) ‘The moral logic and growth of suicide terrorism’, The Washington Quarterly, 29(2), pp. 127–147. Available at:
  • Bellamy, A.J. (2009) ‘Torture, terrorism, and the moral prohibition on killing non-combatants’, in W.G.K. Stritzke et al. (eds) Terrorism and Torture. 1st edn. Cambridge University Press, pp. 18–43. Available at:
  • Bloom, P.B.-N. et al. (2020) ‘Coping with Moral Threat: Moral Judgment amid War on Terror’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 64(2–3), pp. 231–260. Available at:
  • Boekestein, T.L. and de Groot, G.-R. (2019) ‘Discussing the human rights limits on loss of citizenship: a normative-legal perspective on egalitarian arguments regarding Dutch Nationality laws targeting Dutch-Moroccans’, Citizenship Studies, 23(4), pp. 320–337. Available at:
  • Bont, E. (2022) ‘Moral Injury in Provisional IRA Members: Preliminary Evidence of Moral Beliefs Injuring, Protecting & Disillusioning’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 34(8), pp. 1698–1720. Available at:
  • Boutin, B. (2016) ‘Administrative Measures in Counter-terrorism and the Protection of Human Rights’, Security and Human Rights, 27(1–2), pp. 128–147. Available at:
  • Crook, J.R. (2009) ‘U.S. Administration Encounters Difficulties in Effort to End Guantánamo Bay Detentions’, American Journal of International Law, 103(3), pp. 575–579. Available at:
  • de Klerk, P. (2020) ‘Respecting Human Rights While Countering Terrorism: An Impression’, Security and Human Rights, 30(1–4), pp. 39–55. Available at:
  • Dingley, J. and Herman, S. (2017) ‘Terrorism, Radicalisation and Moral Panics: Media and Academic Analysis and Reporting of 2016 and 2017 “Terrorism”’, Small Wars & Insurgencies, 28(6), pp. 996–1013. Available at:
  • Dragu, T. (2017) ‘The Moral Hazard of Terrorism Prevention’, The Journal of Politics, 79(1), pp. 223–236. Available at:
  • Efrat, A. (2015) ‘Do human rights violations hinder counterterrorism cooperation? Evidence from the FBI’s deployment abroad’, The Review of International Organizations, 10(3), pp. 329–349. Available at:
  • Epifanio, M. (2016) ‘The Politics of Targeted and Untargeted Counterterrorist Regulations’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 28(4), pp. 713–734. Available at:
  • Foot, R. (2007) ‘The United Nations, Counter Terrorism and Human Rights: Institutional Adaptation and Embedded Ideas’, Human Rights Quarterly, 29(2), pp. 489–514. Available at:
  • Greenwood, C. (2002) ‘International law and the “war against terrorism”’, International Affairs, 78(2), pp. 301–317. Available at:
  • Grossman, M. and Gerrand, V. (2021) ‘Terrorism Confidential: Ethics, Primary Data and the Construction of “Necessary Fictions”’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 33(2), pp. 242–256. Available at:
  • Hahn, L. et al. (2019) ‘Applying Moral Foundations Theory to Identify Terrorist Group Motivations’, Political Psychology, 40(3), pp. 507–522. Available at:
  • Heath-Kelly, C. and Fernández de Mosteyrín, L. (2021) ‘The political use of victimhood: Spanish collective memory of ETA through the war on terror paradigm’, Review of International Studies, 47(1), pp. 1–18. Available at:
  • Howell, A. (2007) ‘Victims or Madmen? The Diagnostic Competition over “Terrorist” Detainees at Guantánamo Bay: Victims or Madmen?’, International Political Sociology, 1(1), pp. 29–47. Available at:
  • Johns, F. (2005) ‘Guantánamo Bay and the Annihilation of the Exception’, European Journal of International Law, 16(4), pp. 613–635. Available at:
  • Kızılkaya, Z. (2019) ‘Morality of Hezbollah’s conflicts with Israel’, Critical Studies on Terrorism, 12(3), pp. 371–394. Available at:
  • Malinowski, T. (2008) ‘Restoring Moral Authority: Ending Torture, Secret Detention, and the Prison at Guantanamo Bay’, The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 618(1), pp. 148–159. Available at:
  • Margariti, S. (2018) ‘Defining International Terrorism to Protect Human Rights in the Context of Counter-terrorism’, Security and Human Rights, 29(1–4), pp. 173–198. Available at:
  • Mavronicola, N. (2017) ‘Is the Prohibition Against Torture and Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment Absolute in International Human Rights Law? A Reply to Steven Greer’, Human Rights Law Review [Preprint]. Available at:
  • O’Brien, P. (2016) ‘Counter-terrorism in Europe: the elusive search for order’, European Security, 25(3), pp. 366–384. Available at:
  • Robson, M. (2020) ‘Re-visioning the “Eye in the Sky”: targeted drone strikes and an ethics of the encounter’, Critical Studies on Terrorism, 13(1), pp. 100–117. Available at:
  • Schmid, A.P. (2005) ‘Terrorism and Human Rights: A Perspective from the United Nations’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 17(1–2), pp. 25–35. Available at:
  • Schofer, M. (2015) ‘Human Rights and National Security Post 9/11’, Security and Human Rights, 26(2–4), pp. 294–307. Available at:
  • Scott Poynting (2016) ‘Entitled to be a Radical? Counter-Terrorism and Travesty of Human Rights in the Case of Babar Ahmad’, State Crime Journal, 5(2). Available at:
  • Taylor, I. (2022) ‘The Responsibility to Protect from Terror: The Ethics of Foreign Counter-terrorist Interventions’, Global Responsibility to Protect, 14(2), pp. 155–177. Available at:
  • Tsoukala, A. (2006) ‘Democracy in the Light of Security: British and French Political Discourses on Domestic Counter-Terrorism Policies’, Political Studies, 54(3), pp. 607–627. Available at:
  • Wicaksana, I.G.W. (2019) ‘The Consequence of Ethical Criticism of Intelligence on Countering Terrorism in Indonesia’, Asian Politics & Policy, 11(1), pp. 62–79. Available at:
  • Wilke, C. (2005) ‘War v. Justice: Terrorism Cases, Enemy Combatants, and Political Justice in U.S. Courts’, Politics & Society, 33(4), pp. 637–669. Available at:

Required Students’ Skills

Read the course materials carefully and focus on the core and recommended readings that will greatly increase your level of knowledge.

Learn how to use search engines for academic articles, primarily Web of Science, JSTOR, SAGE Journals, and Google Scholar.

To pass an essay assignment with flying colours, you must master the Harvard citation style. Also, it is highly recommended to read the following publication about research methods and design to improve your essay score:

  • Lamont, C. and Boduszynski, M. (2020) Research methods in politics and international relations. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.

Throughout the course, students are also expected to familiarise themselves with leading academic journals to locate the latest articles, thereby connecting with the international relations academic community.

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