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Foreign Policy – Postgraduate Course Syllabus

Course Description

The aim of the course is to provide students with an advanced theoretical basis and concepts in the field, and to prepare them for further research and employment in Foreign Policy. Foreign policy refers to the various strategies a country uses to protect its international and national interests. It determines how it interacts with other state and non-state actors. Diplomacy or other more direct means, such as military aggression or cyberattacks, can achieve this. Foreign Policy Analysis course helps students understand and explain these means by giving them the right tools to think about them.

Students will explore, compare, and debate the merits of theories and key security concepts through in-depth discussion to develop a solid understanding of the various theoretical and practical perspectives. In each lecture, we will place these theories and concepts in their historical context, show how they contribute to a better understanding of international and national security, and assess their strengths and weaknesses.

Applying the Aristotelian method of teaching, I will focus on developing both the intellectual and moral virtues of students. Intellectual virtues are character traits such as the ability to judge the truth and comprehend the nature of things, whereas moral virtues are habits of living that involve the whole person and include justice, temperance, prudence, and fortitude, which are characterised by desire and emotion.

In addition, I designed the course with the following implications in mind: to understand the diverse backgrounds of undergraduate students, to provide full support to non-native speakers in relation to academic English, and to engage the students in practical discussions and seminars. An inclusive curriculum implements policies and resources to ensure that all students are supported in their learning.

Learning Objectives and Outcomes

  • Analyse and apply diverse theoretical approaches to advanced foreign analysis.
  • Examine critically the reasons for cooperation and conflict in international relations.
  • Engage in contemporary theoretical discussions in foreign policy.
  • Construct and defend theoretically sophisticated arguments regarding foreign policy.
  • Identify leading authors and the theories with which they are associated.
  • Learn to think and write critically about crucial debates in foreign policy analysis.
  • Effective communication in professional applications of foreign policy scholarship.
  • Develop innovative ways of thinking about the practical implications of foreign policy (responsible actors, foreign policy practice, diplomacy, agency and structure). 

Reading Materials

Foundation texts

  1. Foreign policy analysis: classic and contemporary theory and Foreign Policy Analysis: A Toolbox serve as the course’s foundation texts. They offer advanced foreign policy thoughts, reflections, and useful foreign policy considerations.  
  2. Hudson, V.M. and Day, B.S. (2020) Foreign policy analysis: classic and contemporary theory. Third edition. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
  3. Morin, J.-F. and Paquin, J. (2018) Foreign Policy Analysis: A Toolbox. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:

Additionally, recommended readings based on scholarly articles are provided for each lecture to enhance students’ academic analytical and critical thinking.

The quality of teaching, course content, and literature included reflects the advanced practice of worldwide recognised departments of politics and international relations.

Course Content

Lecture 1: Evolution of Foreign Policy Analysis

Core Required Reading

  1. Hudson, V.M. and Day, B.S. (2020) Foreign policy analysis: classic and contemporary theory. Third edition. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Introduction: The Situation and Evolution of Foreign Policy Analysis: A Road Map
  1. Morin, J.-F. and Paquin, J. (2018) Foreign Policy Analysis: A Toolbox. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  • What Is Foreign Policy Analysis?
  • How to Identify and Assess a Foreign Policy?

Recommended Reading

  • Carlsnaes, W. (1992) ‘The Agency-Structure Problem in Foreign Policy Analysis’, International Studies Quarterly, 36(3), p. 245. Available at:
  • Cengiz, S. (2020) ‘Saudi Foreign Policy Towards China in the Post-Arab Uprisings Era: A Neo-classical Realist Approach’, Asian Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, 14(1), pp. 51–67. Available at:
  • Doty, R.L. (1993) ‘Foreign Policy as Social Construction: A Post-Positivist Analysis of U.S. Counterinsurgency Policy in the Philippines’, International Studies Quarterly, 37(3), p. 297. Available at:
  • Edinger, H. (2021) ‘Theory of Irrational Politics: Classical Realist Lessons on Foreign Policy Analysis’, International Studies Review, 23(4), pp. 1181–1207. Available at:
  • Elman, M.F. (1995) ‘The Foreign Policies of Small States: Challenging Neorealism in Its Own Backyard’, British Journal of Political Science, 25(2), pp. 171–217. Available at:
  • Fearon, J.D. (1998) ‘DOMESTIC POLITICS, FOREIGN POLICY, AND THEORIES OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS’, Annual Review of Political Science, 1(1), pp. 289–313. Available at:
  • Firoozabadi, J.D. and Ashkezari, M.Z. (2016) ‘Neo-classical Realism in International Relations’, Asian Social Science, 12(6), p. 95. Available at:
  • George, A.L. (1972) ‘The Case for Multiple Advocacy in Making Foreign Policy’, American Political Science Review, 66(3), pp. 751–785. Available at:
  • Glenn, J. (2009) ‘Realism versus Strategic Culture: Competition and Collaboration?’, International Studies Review, 11(3), pp. 523–551. Available at:
  • Groom, A.J.R. (2007) ‘Foreign Policy Analysis: From Little Acorn to Giant Oak?’, International Studies, 44(3), pp. 195–215. Available at:
  • Holsti, K. (2016) ‘The Problem of Change in International Relations Theory’, in Holsti, K., Kalevi Holsti: A Pioneer in International Relations Theory, Foreign Policy Analysis, History of International Order, and Security Studies. Cham: Springer International Publishing (SpringerBriefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice), pp. 37–55. Available at:
  • Howell, J. (1968) ‘An Analysis of Kenyan Foreign Policy’, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 6(1), pp. 29–48. Available at:
  • Hudson, V.M. and Vore, C.S. (1995) ‘Foreign Policy Analysis Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow’, Mershon International Studies Review, 39(2), p. 209. Available at:
  • Kaarbo, J. (2015) ‘A Foreign Policy Analysis Perspective on the Domestic Politics Turn in IR Theory’, International Studies Review, 17(2), pp. 189–216. Available at:
  • Kattenburg, P.M. (1974) ‘Comparative Foreign Policy: A Learning Scheme for Introductory Study and Research’, Teaching Political Science, 2(1), pp. 40–64. Available at:
  • Naddaf, G. (1999) ‘Philippe Constantineau and the Classical Doctrine of Foreign Policy’:, Symposium, 3(2), pp. 275–281. Available at:
  • Nygren, B. (2012) ‘Using the neo-classical realism paradigm to predict Russian foreign policy behaviour as a complement to using resources’, International Politics, 49(4), pp. 517–529. Available at:
  • Potter, W.C. (1980) ‘Issue area and foreign policy analysis’, International Organization, 34(3), pp. 405–427. Available at:
  • Rose, G. (1998) ‘Neoclassical Realism and Theories of Foreign Policy’, World Politics, 51(1), pp. 144–172. Available at:
  • Sasley, B.E. (2010) ‘Affective attachments and foreign policy: Israel and the 1993 Oslo Accords’, European Journal of International Relations, 16(4), pp. 687–709. Available at:
  • Thies, C.G. (2012) ‘International Socialization Processes vs. Israeli National Role Conceptions: Can Role Theory Integrate IR Theory and Foreign Policy Analysis?: International Socialization Processes vs. Israeli National Role Conceptions’, Foreign Policy Analysis, 8(1), pp. 25–46. Available at:
  • Thies, C.G. and Breuning, M. (2012) ‘Integrating Foreign Policy Analysis and International Relations through Role Theory: Integrating FPA and IR’, Foreign Policy Analysis, 8(1), pp. 1–4. Available at:
  • Volgy, T.J. and Kenski, H.C. (1976) ‘Toward and Exploration of Comparative Foreign Policy Distance between the United States and Latin America: A Research Note’, International Studies Quarterly, 20(1), p. 143. Available at:
  • White, B. (1999) ‘The European Challenge to Foreign Policy Analysis’, European Journal of International Relations, 5(1), pp. 37–66. Available at:

Lecture 2: Individual Decision-making Processes and Leaders

Core Required Reading

  1. Hudson, V.M. and Day, B.S. (2020) Foreign policy analysis: classic and contemporary theory. Third edition. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • The Individual Decisionmaker: The Political Psychology of World Leaders
  1. Morin, J.-F. and Paquin, J. (2018) Foreign Policy Analysis: A Toolbox. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  • Do Decision-Makers Matter?

Recommended Reading

  • Axelrod, R. (1973) ‘Schema Theory: An Information Processing Model of Perception and Cognition’, American Political Science Review, 67(4), pp. 1248–1266. Available at:
  • Beasley, R.K. et al. (2001) ‘People and Processes in Foreign Policymaking: Insights from Comparative Case Studies’, International Studies Review, 3(2), pp. 217–250. Available at:
  • Breuning, M. (2003) ‘The Role of Analogies and Abstract Reasoning in Decision-Making: Evidence from the Debate over Truman’s Proposal for Development Assistance’, International Studies Quarterly, 47(2), pp. 229–245. Available at:
  • Brummer, K. (2016) ‘“Fiasco prime ministers”: leaders’ beliefs and personality traits as possible causes for policy fiascos’, Journal of European Public Policy, 23(5), pp. 702–717. Available at:
  • Brummer, K. (2021) ‘Advancing foreign policy analysis by studying leaders from the global South’, International Affairs, 97(2), pp. 405–421. Available at:
  • Byman, D.L. and Pollack, K.M. (2001) ‘Let Us Now Praise Great Men: Bringing the Statesman Back In’, International Security, 25(4), pp. 107–146. Available at:
  • Chittick, W.O. and Freyberg-Inan, A. (2001) ‘“Chiefly for fear, next for honour, and lastly for profit”: an analysis of foreign policy motivation in the Peloponnesian War’, Review of International Studies, 27(1), pp. 069–090. Available at:
  • David Singer, J. (1961) ‘The Level-of-Analysis Problem in International Relations’, World Politics, 14(1), pp. 77–92. Available at:
  • Dyson, S.B. (2007) ‘Alliances, Domestic Politics, and Leader Psychology: Why Did Britain Stay Out of Vietnam and Go into Iraq?’, Political Psychology, 28(6), pp. 647–666. Available at:
  • Eckhardt, W. and White, R.K. (1967) ‘A test of the mirror-image hypothesis: Kennedy and Khrushchev’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 11(3), pp. 325–332. Available at:
  • Gallagher, M.E. and Allen, S.H. (2014) ‘Presidential Personality: Not Just a Nuisance’, Foreign Policy Analysis, 10(1), pp. 1–21. Available at:
  • Hehir, A. (2006) ‘The Impact of Analogical Reasoning on US Foreign Policy Towards Kosovo’, Journal of Peace Research, 43(1), pp. 67–81. Available at:
  • Hermann, M.G. (2001) ‘How Decision Units Shape Foreign Policy: A Theoretical Framework’, International Studies Review, 3(2), pp. 47–81. Available at:
  • Hermann, M.G. and Hermann, C.F. (1989) ‘Who Makes Foreign Policy Decisions and How: An Empirical Inquiry’, International Studies Quarterly, 33(4), p. 361. Available at:
  • Hollis, M. and Smith, S. (1986) ‘Roles and Reasons in Foreign Policy Decision Making’, British Journal of Political Science, 16(3), pp. 269–286. Available at:
  • Holmes, M. and Traven, D. (2015) ‘Acting Rationally Without Really Thinking: The Logic of Rational Intuitionism for International Relations Theory’, International Studies Review, p. n/a-n/a. Available at:
  • Houghton, D.P. (2007) ‘Reinvigorating the Study of Foreign Policy Decision Making: Toward a Constructivist Approach’, Foreign Policy Analysis, 3(1), pp. 24–45. Available at:
  • Kuzma, L.M. and Prestre, P.G.L. (1998) ‘The Crusade to Resurrect the National Role Concept’, Mershon International Studies Review, 42(1), p. 167. Available at:
  • Maoz, Z. (1990) ‘Framing the National Interest: The Manipulation of Foreign Policy Decisions in Group Settings’, World Politics, 43(1), pp. 77–110. Available at:
  • Park, A. and Paulionyte, M. (2016) ‘Lithuania’s foreign policy under Grybauskaite: change or continuity?’, Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 24(4), pp. 509–531. Available at:
  • Renshon, J. and Renshon, S.A. (2008) ‘The Theory and Practice of Foreign Policy Decision Making’, Political Psychology, 29(4), pp. 509–536. Available at:
  • Rosati, J.A. (2000) ‘The Power of Human Cognition in the Study of World Politics’, International Studies Review, 2(3), pp. 45–75. Available at:
  • Shapiro, M.J. and Bonham, G.M. (1973) ‘Cognitive Process and Foreign Policy Decision-Making’, International Studies Quarterly, 17(2), p. 147. Available at:
  • Thiel, M. (2008) ‘One Piece of the Puzzle: Individual Leadership and EU Foreign Policy Development’, International Studies Review, 10(4), pp. 824–826. Available at:
  • Tversky, A. and Kahneman, D. (1974) ‘Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases: Biases in judgments reveal some heuristics of thinking under uncertainty.’, Science, 185(4157), pp. 1124–1131. Available at:

Lecture 3: Group Decision-making Processes and the Bureaucracy

Core Required Reading

  1. Hudson, V.M. and Day, B.S. (2020) Foreign policy analysis: classic and contemporary theory. Third edition. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Group Decisionmaking: Small Group Dynamics, Organizational Process, and Bureaucratic Politics
  1. Morin, J.-F. and Paquin, J. (2018) Foreign Policy Analysis: A Toolbox. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  • What Is the Influence of the Bureaucracy?

Recommended Reading

  • Barr, K. and Mintz, A. (2018) ‘Public Policy Perspective on Group Decision-Making Dynamics in Foreign Policy: Group Decision-Making Dynamics’, Policy Studies Journal, 46, pp. S69–S90. Available at:
  • Brecher, M., Steinberg, B. and Stein, J. (1969) ‘A framework for research on foreign policy behavior’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 13(1), pp. 75–94. Available at:
  • Doctor, A.C. (2020) ‘A Motion of No Confidence: Leadership and Rebel Fragmentation’, Journal of Global Security Studies, 5(4), pp. 598–616. Available at:
  • Drezner, D.W. (2019) ‘Present at the Destruction: The Trump Administration and the Foreign Policy Bureaucracy’, The Journal of Politics, 81(2), pp. 723–730. Available at:
  • Flynn, M.E. (2014) ‘The International and Domestic Sources of Bipartisanship in U.S. Foreign Policy’, Political Research Quarterly, 67(2), pp. 398–412. Available at:
  • Garrison, J. (2007) ‘Constructing the “National Interest” in U.S.?China Policy Making: How Foreign Policy Decision Groups Define and Signal Policy Choices’, Foreign Policy Analysis, 3(2), pp. 105–126. Available at:
  • Gülen, B. (2022) ‘Turf Wars in Foreign Policy Bureaucracy: Rivalry between the Government and the Bureaucracy in Turkish Foreign Policy’, Foreign Policy Analysis, 18(4), p. orac021. Available at:
  • Hannagan, R.J. and Larimer, C.W. (2010) ‘Does Gender Composition Affect Group Decision Outcomes? Evidence from a Laboratory Experiment’, Political Behavior, 32(1), pp. 51–67. Available at:
  • Horowitz, M. et al. (2019) ‘What Makes Foreign Policy Teams Tick: Explaining Variation in Group Performance at Geopolitical Forecasting’, The Journal of Politics, 81(4), pp. 1388–1404. Available at:
  • Jakobson, L. and Manuel, R. (2016) ‘How are Foreign Policy Decisions Made in China?: Foreign Policy Decisions Made in China’, Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies, 3(1), pp. 101–110. Available at:
  • Kaarbo, J. (1996) ‘Power and Influence in Foreign Policy Decision Making: The Role of Junior Coalition Partners in German and Israeli Foreign Policy’, International Studies Quarterly, 40(4), p. 501. Available at:
  • Keane, C. and Diesen, G. (2015) ‘Divided We Stand: The US Foreign Policy Bureaucracy and Nation-Building in Afghanistan’, International Peacekeeping, 22(3), pp. 205–229. Available at:
  • Keller, G.N. (2013) ‘Reforming Indonesia’s Foreign Ministry: Ideas, Organization and Leadership’, CONTEMPORARY SOUTHEAST ASIA, 35(1), p. 56. Available at:
  • Kertzer, J.D. et al. (2022) ‘Hawkish Biases and Group Decision Making’, International Organization, 76(3), pp. 513–548. Available at:
  • Mintz, A. and Wayne, C. (2016) ‘The Polythink Syndrome and Elite Group Decision-Making: Polythink Syndrome and Elite Group Decision-Making’, Political Psychology, 37, pp. 3–21. Available at:
  • Mochtak, M. and Diviak, T. (2019) ‘Looking Eastward: Network Analysis of Czech Deputies and Their Foreign Policy Groups’, Problems of Post-Communism, 66(6), pp. 418–433. Available at:
  • Persson, M., Esaiasson, P. and Gilljam, M. (2013) ‘The effects of direct voting and deliberation on legitimacy beliefs: an experimental study of small group decision-making’, European Political Science Review, 5(3), pp. 381–399. Available at:
  • Saunders, E.N. (2017) ‘No Substitute for Experience: Presidents, Advisers, and Information in Group Decision Making’, International Organization, 71(S1), pp. S219–S247. Available at:
  • Simão, L. (2012) ‘Do leaders still decide? The role of leadership in Russian foreign policymaking’, International Politics, 49(4), pp. 482–497. Available at:
  • Tellander, E. and Horst, C. (2019) ‘A Foreign Policy Actor of Importance? The Role of the Somali Diaspora in Shaping Norwegian Policy towards Somalia’, Foreign Policy Analysis, 15(1), pp. 136–154. Available at:
  • Tsourapas, G. (2019) ‘The Syrian Refugee Crisis and Foreign Policy Decision-Making in Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey’, Journal of Global Security Studies, 4(4), pp. 464–481. Available at:
  • van de Vliert, E. and de Dreu, C.K.W. (1994) ‘OPTIMIZING PERFORMANCE BY CONFLICT STIMULATION’, International Journal of Conflict Management, 5(3), pp. 211–222. Available at:

Lecture 4: Culture, National Identity, and Social Actors

Core Required Reading

  1. Hudson, V.M. and Day, B.S. (2020) Foreign policy analysis: classic and contemporary theory. Third edition. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Culture and National Identity
  1. Morin, J.-F. and Paquin, J. (2018) Foreign Policy Analysis: A Toolbox. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  • How Influential Are the Social Actors?
  • What Part Does Culture Play in FPA?

Recommended Reading

  • Ashizawa, K. (2008) ‘When Identity Matters: State Identity, Regional Institution-Building, and Japanese Foreign Policy’, International Studies Review, 10(3), pp. 571–598. Available at:
  • Banchoff, T. (1999) ‘German Identity and European Integration’, European Journal of International Relations, 5(3), pp. 259–289. Available at:
  • Bevir, M., Daddow, O. and Hall, I. (2013) ‘Introduction: Interpreting British Foreign Policy’, The British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 15(2), pp. 163–174. Available at:
  • Cantir, C. and Kaarbo, J. (2012) ‘Contested Roles and Domestic Politics: Reflections on Role Theory in Foreign Policy Analysis and IR Theory1: Contested Roles and Domestic Politics’, Foreign Policy Analysis, 8(1), pp. 5–24. Available at:
  • Checkel, J.T. (2001) ‘Why Comply? Social Learning and European Identity Change’, International Organization, 55(3), pp. 553–588. Available at:
  • Deyermond, R. (2016) ‘The Uses of Sovereignty in Twenty-first Century Russian Foreign Policy’, Europe-Asia Studies, 68(6), pp. 957–984. Available at:
  • Feklyunina, V. (2016) ‘Soft power and identity: Russia, Ukraine and the “Russian world(s)”’, European Journal of International Relations, 22(4), pp. 773–796. Available at:
  • Forsberg, T. (2011) ‘Normative Power Europe, Once Again: A Conceptual Analysis of an Ideal Type*: NORMATIVE POWER EUROPE’, JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 49(6), pp. 1183–1204. Available at:
  • Holsti, O.R. (1992) ‘Public Opinion and Foreign Policy: Challenges to the Almond-Lippmann Consensus Mershon Series: Research Programs and Debates’, International Studies Quarterly, 36(4), p. 439. Available at:
  • Huntington, S.P. (1997) ‘The Erosion of American National Interests’, Foreign Affairs, 76(5), p. 28. Available at:
  • Jacobs, L.R. and Page, B.I. (2005) ‘Who Influences U.S. Foreign Policy?’, American Political Science Review, 99(1), pp. 107–123. Available at:
  • Johnson, C. (2007) ‘John Howard’s “Values” and Australian Identity’, Australian Journal of Political Science, 42(2), pp. 195–209. Available at:
  • Kertzer, J.D. and Zeitzoff, T. (2017) ‘A Bottom-Up Theory of Public Opinion about Foreign Policy: A BOTTOM-UP THEORY OF PUBLIC OPINION ABOUT FOREIGN POLICY’, American Journal of Political Science, 61(3), pp. 543–558. Available at:
  • Kertzer, J.D. et al. (2014) ‘Moral Support: How Moral Values Shape Foreign Policy Attitudes’, The Journal of Politics, 76(3), pp. 825–840. Available at:
  • Laffey, M. (2000) ‘Locating identity: performativity, foreign policy and state action’, Review of International Studies, 26(3), pp. 429–444. Available at:
  • Makarychev, A. and Morozov, V. (2011) ‘Multilateralism, Multipolarity, and Beyond: A Menu of Russia’s Policy Strategies’, Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations, 17(3), pp. 353–373. Available at:
  • Risse, T. (2005) ‘Neofunctionalism, European identity, and the puzzles of European integration’, Journal of European Public Policy, 12(2), pp. 291–309. Available at:
  • Risse-Kappen, T. (1991) ‘Public Opinion, Domestic Structure, and Foreign Policy in Liberal Democracies’, World Politics, 43(4), pp. 479–512. Available at:
  • Ruggie, J.G. (1997) ‘The Past as Prologue?: Interests, Identity, and American Foreign Policy’, International Security, 21(4), p. 89. Available at:
  • Sharp, J.P. (1993) ‘Publishing American identity: popular geopolitics, myth and The Reader’s Digest’, Political Geography, 12(6), pp. 491–503. Available at:
  • Smith, M.E. (2004) ‘Institutionalization, Policy Adaptation and European Foreign Policy Cooperation’, European Journal of International Relations, 10(1), pp. 95–136. Available at:
  • Soroka, S.N. (2003) ‘Media, Public Opinion, and Foreign Policy’, Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 8(1), pp. 27–48. Available at:
  • Tomz, M. (2007) ‘Domestic Audience Costs in International Relations: An Experimental Approach’, International Organization, 61(04). Available at:
  • Tomz, M.R. and Weeks, J.L.P. (2013) ‘Public Opinion and the Democratic Peace’, American Political Science Review, 107(4), pp. 849–865. Available at:
  • Wohlforth, W.C. et al. (2018) ‘Moral authority and status in International Relations: Good states and the social dimension of status seeking’, Review of International Studies, 44(3), pp. 526–546. Available at:

Lecture 5: Domestic Politics

Core Required Reading

  1. Hudson, V.M. and Day, B.S. (2020) Foreign policy analysis: classic and contemporary theory. Third edition. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Domestic Politics
  1. Morin, J.-F. and Paquin, J. (2018) Foreign Policy Analysis: A Toolbox. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  • To What Extent Is Foreign Policy Shaped by Institutions?

Recommended Reading

  • Akbarzadeh, S. and Barry, J. (2016) ‘State Identity in Iranian Foreign Policy’, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 43(4), pp. 613–629. Available at:
  • Anderson, C.J. (1998) ‘When in Doubt, Use Proxies: Attitudes toward Domestic Politics and Support for European Integration’, Comparative Political Studies, 31(5), pp. 569–601. Available at:
  • Doeser, F. (2011) ‘Domestic politics and foreign policy change in small states: The fall of the Danish “footnote policy”’, Cooperation and Conflict, 46(2), pp. 222–241. Available at:
  • Doeser, F. (2017) ‘Strategic Culture, Domestic Politics, and Foreign Policy: Finland’s Decision to Refrain from Operation Unified Protector’, Foreign Policy Analysis, 13(3), pp. 741–759. Available at:
  • Enterline, A.J. and Jepsen, E.M. (2009) ‘Chinazambia and Boliviafranca: A Simulation of Domestic Politics and Foreign Policy’, International Studies Perspectives, 10(1), pp. 49–59. Available at:
  • Farnham, B. (2004) ‘Impact of the Political Context on Foreign Policy Decision-Making’, Political Psychology, 25(3), pp. 441–463. Available at:
  • Ferdinand, P. (2016) ‘Westward ho-the China dream and “one belt, one road”: Chinese foreign policy under Xi Jinping’, International Affairs, 92(4), pp. 941–957. Available at:
  • Gilmore, J. (2019) ‘Looking downward: ethics, foreign policy and the domestic politics of protection’, International Politics, 56(2), pp. 175–193. Available at:
  • Hansen, L. and Wæver, O. (2003) European integration and national identity: the challenge of the Nordic states. London: Routledge.
  • Hofmann, S.C. and Martill, B. (2021) ‘The party scene: new directions for political party research in foreign policy analysis’, International Affairs, 97(2), pp. 305–322. Available at:
  • Isernia, P. and Longo, F. (2017) ‘The Italian foreign policy: challenges and continuities’, Italian Political Science Review/Rivista Italiana di Scienza Politica, 47(2), pp. 107–124. Available at:
  • Jervis, R. (2015) ‘Socialization, revolutionary states and domestic politics’, International Politics, 52(5), pp. 609–616. Available at:
  • Joly, J. and Dandoy, R. (2016) ‘Beyond the Water’s Edge: How Political Parties Influence Foreign Policy Formulation in Belgium’, Foreign Policy Analysis, p. orw049. Available at:
  • Kertzer, J.D., Brooks, D.J. and Brooks, S.G. (2021) ‘Do Partisan Types Stop at the Water’s Edge?’, The Journal of Politics, 83(4), pp. 1764–1782. Available at:
  • Leonhard, W. (1973) ‘The Domestic Politics of the New Soviet Foreign Policy’, Foreign Affairs, 52(1), p. 59. Available at:
  • Lindsay, J.M., Sayrs, L.W. and Steger, W.P. (1992) ‘The Determinants of Presidential Foreign Policy Choice’, American Politics Quarterly, 20(1), pp. 3–25. Available at:
  • Moore, W.H. and Lanoue, D.J. (2003) ‘Domestic Politics and U.S. Foreign Policy: A Study of Cold War Conflict Behavior’, The Journal of Politics, 65(2), pp. 376–396. Available at:
  • Morgan, T.C. and Schwebach, V.L. (1995) ‘Economic sanctions as an instrument of foreign policy: The role of domestic politics’, International Interactions, 21(3), pp. 247–263. Available at:
  • Mukherjee, R. and Malone, D.M. (2011) ‘Indian foreign policy and contemporary security challenges’, International Affairs, 87(1), pp. 87–104. Available at:
  • Pishchikova, K. and Piras, E. (2017) ‘The European Union Global Strategy: What Kind of Foreign Policy Identity?’, The International Spectator, 52(3), pp. 103–120. Available at:
  • Salehyan, I. and Rosenblum, M.R. (2008) ‘International Relations, Domestic Politics, and Asylum Admissions in the United States’, Political Research Quarterly, 61(1), pp. 104–121. Available at:
  • Souva, M. (2005) ‘Foreign Policy Determinants: Comparing Realist and Domestic-Political Models of Foreign Policy’, Conflict Management and Peace Science, 22(2), pp. 149–163. Available at:
  • Tulmets, E. (2014) East Central European Foreign Policy Identity in Perspective. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK. Available at:
  • Vucetic, S. (2017) ‘Identity and Foreign Policy’, in Vucetic, S., Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Oxford University Press. Available at:
  • Wallace, W. (1991) ‘Foreign policy and national identity in the United Kingdom’, International Affairs, 67(1), pp. 65–80. Available at:

Lecture 6: National and International Aspects of Foreign Policy

Core Required Reading

  1. Hudson, V.M. and Day, B.S. (2020) Foreign policy analysis: classic and contemporary theory. Third edition. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • The Levels of National Attributes and International System: Effects on Foreign Policy
  1. Morin, J.-F. and Paquin, J. (2018) Foreign Policy Analysis: A Toolbox. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  • Does the International Structure Explain Foreign Policy?

Recommended Reading

  • Allison, G.T. (1973) ‘Military Capabilities and American Foreign Policy’, The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 406(1), pp. 17–37. Available at:
  • Alsina Jr, J.P.S. (2009) ‘O poder militar como instrumento da política externa brasileira contemporânea’, Revista Brasileira de Política Internacional, 52(2), pp. 173–191. Available at:
  • Brewer, P.R. and Steenbergen, M.R. (2002) ‘All Against All: How Beliefs about Human Nature Shape Foreign Policy Opinions’, Political Psychology, 23(1), pp. 39–58. Available at:
  • De Sá Guimarães, F. and De Oliveira E Silva, I.D. (2021) ‘Far-right populism and foreign policy identity: Jair Bolsonaro’s ultra-conservatism and the new politics of alignment’, International Affairs, 97(2), pp. 345–363. Available at:
  • Ettinger, A. (2021) ‘Rumors of restoration: Joe Biden’s foreign policy and what it means for Canada’, Canadian Foreign Policy Journal, 27(2), pp. 157–174. Available at:
  • Flint, C. and Xiaotong, Z. (2019) ‘Historical–Geopolitical Contexts and the Transformation of Chinese Foreign Policy’, The Chinese Journal of International Politics, 12(3), pp. 295–331. Available at:
  • Ghiselli, A. (2020) ‘Civil–military relations and organisational preferences regarding the use of the military in Chinese foreign policy: insights from the debate on MOOTW’, Journal of Strategic Studies, 43(3), pp. 421–442. Available at:
  • Güney, A. and Gökcan, F. (2010) ‘The “Greater Middle East” as a “Modern” Geopolitical Imagination in American Foreign Policy’, Geopolitics, 15(1), pp. 22–38. Available at:
  • Güney, A. and Mandacı, N. (2013) ‘The meta-geography of the Middle East and North Africa in Turkey’s new geopolitical imagination’, Security Dialogue, 44(5–6), pp. 431–448. Available at:
  • Harris, S. (1986) ‘The linking of politics and economics in foreign policy’, Australian Outlook, 40(1), pp. 5–10. Available at:
  • Idan, A. and Shaffer, B. (2011) ‘The Foreign Policies of Post-Soviet Landlocked States’, Post-Soviet Affairs, 27(3), pp. 241–268. Available at:
  • Kolkowicz, R. (1981) ‘The military and Soviet foreign policy’, Journal of Strategic Studies, 4(4), pp. 337–355. Available at:
  • Miller, R. and Verhoeven, H. (2020) ‘Overcoming smallness: Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and strategic realignment in the Gulf’, International Politics, 57(1), pp. 1–20. Available at:
  • Munro, N. (2007) ‘Which Way Does Ukraine Face? Popular Orientations Toward Russia and Western Europe’, Problems of Post-Communism, 54(6), pp. 43–58. Available at:
  • Nomerovchenko, A., Kim, J. and Kang, W. (2018) ‘Foreign Policy Orientation of Independent Central Asian States : Looking Through the Prism of Ideas and Identities’, The Korean Journal of International Studies, 16(3), pp. 389–410. Available at:
  • Ogunbadejo, O. (1980) ‘Nigeria’s Foreign Policy under Military Rule 1966-79’, International Journal, 35(4), p. 748. Available at:
  • Saunders, R.M. (1985) ‘Military Force in the Foreign Policy of the Eisenhower Presidency’, Political Science Quarterly, 100(1), p. 97. Available at:
  • Spykman, N.J. (1938) ‘Geography and Foreign Policy, I’, American Political Science Review, 32(1), pp. 28–50. Available at:
  • Spykman, N.J. (1938) ‘Geography and Foreign Policy, II’, American Political Science Review, 32(2), pp. 213–236. Available at:
  • Sridharan, E. (2017) ‘Where is India headed? Possible future directions in Indian foreign policy’, International Affairs, 93(1), pp. 51–68. Available at:
  • Stachowitsch, S. (2012) ‘Military gender integration and foreign policy in the United States: A feminist international relations perspective’, Security Dialogue, 43(4), pp. 305–321. Available at:
  • Telci, İ.N. and Horoz, T.Ö. (2018) ‘Military Bases in the Foreign Policy of the United Arab Emirates’, Insight Turkey, 20(2). Available at:
  • Trubowitz, P. (1992) ‘Sectionalism and American Foreign Policy: The Political Geography of Consensus and Conflict’, International Studies Quarterly, 36(2), p. 173. Available at:
  • Yablokov, I. (2015) ‘Conspiracy Theories as a Russian Public Diplomacy Tool: The Case of Russia Today ( RT )’, Politics, 35(3–4), pp. 301–315. Available at:
  • Zimmerman, W. and Palmer, G. (1983) ‘Words and Deeds in Soviet Foreign Policy: The Case of Soviet Military Expenditures’, American Political Science Review, 77(2), pp. 358–367. Available at:

Lecture 7: Integration of Theories and Rationality in Foreign Policy Analysis

Core Required Reading

  1. Hudson, V.M. and Day, B.S. (2020) Foreign policy analysis: classic and contemporary theory. Third edition. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Theoretical Integration in Foreign Policy Analysis
  1. Morin, J.-F. and Paquin, J. (2018) Foreign Policy Analysis: A Toolbox. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  • How Does Rationality Apply to FPA and What Are Its Limitations?

Recommended Reading

  • Aggestam, K., Bergman Rosamond, A. and Kronsell, A. (2019) ‘Theorising feminist foreign policy’, International Relations, 33(1), pp. 23–39. Available at:
  • Aggestam, L. and Johansson, M. (2017) ‘The Leadership Paradox in EU Foreign Policy: The Leadership Paradox in EU Foreign Policy’, JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 55(6), pp. 1203–1220. Available at:
  • Aran, A. (2011) ‘Foreign policy and globalization theory: The case of Israel’, International Politics, 48(6), pp. 707–730. Available at:
  • Bow, B. (2010) ‘Paradigms and Paradoxes: Canadian Foreign Policy in Theory, Research, and Practice’, International Journal: Canada’s Journal of Global Policy Analysis, 65(2), pp. 371–380. Available at:
  • Cebeci, M. (2012) ‘European Foreign Policy Research Reconsidered: Constructing an “Ideal Power Europe” through Theory?’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 40(3), pp. 563–583. Available at:
  • Davis, W. (2012) ‘Swords into ploughshares: The effect of pacifist public opinion on foreign policy in Western democracies’, Cooperation and Conflict, 47(3), pp. 309–330. Available at:
  • Eberle, J. and Miskimmon, A. (2021) ‘International Theory and German Foreign Policy: Introduction to a Special Issue’, German Politics, 30(1), pp. 1–13. Available at:
  • Hansel, M. and Möller, M. (2015) ‘Indian Foreign Policy and International Humanitarian Norms: A Role-Theoretical Analysis: Indian Foreign Policy: A Role-Theoretical Analysis’, Asian Politics & Policy, 7(1), pp. 79–104. Available at:
  • Hatipoglu, E. and Palmer, G. (2016) ‘Contextualizing change in Turkish foreign policy: the promise of the “two-good” theory’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 29(1), pp. 231–250. Available at:
  • Hom, A. and Beasley, R. (2021) ‘Constructing time in foreign policy-making: Brexit’s timing entrepreneurs, malcontemps and apparatchiks’, International Affairs, 97(2), pp. 267–285. Available at:
  • Jørgensen, K.E. (2015) ‘Discursively (de-)constructing European foreign policy: Theoretical and methodological challenges’, Cooperation and Conflict, 50(4), pp. 492–509. Available at:
  • Lee, Y.W. (2012) ‘Synthesis and reformulation of foreign policy change: Japan and East Asian financial regionalism’, Review of International Studies, 38(4), pp. 785–807. Available at:
  • Levy, J.S. (1997) ‘Prospect Theory, Rational Choice, and International Relations’, International Studies Quarterly, 41(1), pp. 87–112. Available at:
  • McCourt, D.M. (2011) ‘Rethinking Britain’s Role in the World for a New Decade: The Limits of Discursive Therapy and the Promise of Field Theory’, The British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 13(2), pp. 145–164. Available at:
  • Monroy, M.C. and Sánchez, F. (2017) ‘Foreign Policy Analysis and the Making of Plan Colombia’, Global Society, 31(2), pp. 245–271. Available at:
  • Mouritzen, H. (2020) ‘“Remember Iraq!” Learning theory and the 2013 non-decision on air strikes against Syria’, International Politics, 57(6), pp. 954–972. Available at:
  • Paul, D.W. (1971) ‘Soviet Foreign Policy and the Invasion of Czechoslovakia: A Theory and a Case Study’, International Studies Quarterly, 15(2), p. 159. Available at:
  • Rathbun, B.C. et al. (2016) ‘Taking Foreign Policy Personally: Personal Values and Foreign Policy Attitudes’, International Studies Quarterly, 60(1), pp. 124–137. Available at:
  • Ripley, B. (1993) ‘Psychology, Foreign Policy, and International Relations Theory’, Political Psychology, 14(3), p. 403. Available at:
  • Togeby, L. (1994) ‘The Gender Gap in Foreign Policy Attitudes’, Journal of Peace Research, 31(4), pp. 375–392. Available at:
  • Vis, B. and Kuijpers, D. (2018) ‘Prospect theory and foreign policy decision-making: Underexposed issues, advancements, and ways forward’, Contemporary Security Policy, 39(4), pp. 575–589. Available at:
  • Wehner, L.E. and Thies, C.G. (2014) ‘Role Theory, Narratives, and Interpretation: The Domestic Contestation of Roles’, International Studies Review, 16(3), pp. 411–436. Available at:
  • Wehner, L.E. and Thies, C.G. (2021) ‘The nexus of populism and foreign policy: The case of Latin America’, International Relations, 35(2), pp. 320–340. Available at:
  • Zarnett, D. (2014) ‘What Does Realist Foreign Policy Activism Tell Us About Realist Theory?’, Foreign Policy Analysis, p. n/a-n/a. Available at:
  • Zhang, F. (2015) ‘Confucian Foreign Policy Traditions in Chinese History’, The Chinese Journal of International Politics, 8(2), pp. 197–218. Available at:

Lecture 8: Foreign Policy in Cyberspace

Core Required Reading

  1. Bos, M. and Melissen, J. (2019) ‘Rebel diplomacy and digital communication: public diplomacy in the Sahel’, International Affairs, 95(6), pp. 1331–1348. Available at:
  2. Boyd-Barrett, O. (2006) ‘Cyberspace, globalization and empire’, Global Media and Communication, 2(1), pp. 21–41. Available at:
  3. Heinl, C.H. (2017) ‘New Trends in Chinese Foreign Policy: The Evolving Role of Cyber’, Asian Security, 13(2), pp. 132–147. Available at:
  4. Hurwitz, R. (2014) ‘The Play of States: Norms and Security in Cyberspace’, American Foreign Policy Interests, 36(5), pp. 322–331. Available at:
  5. Jezierska, K. (2022) ‘Incredibly loud and extremely silent: Feminist foreign policy on Twitter’, Cooperation and Conflict, 57(1), pp. 84–107. Available at:
  6. Maness, R.C. and Valeriano, B. (2016) ‘The Impact of Cyber Conflict on International Interactions’, Armed Forces & Society, 42(2), pp. 301–323. Available at:
  7. Melissen, J. and de Keulenaar, E.V. (2017) ‘Critical Digital Diplomacy as a Global Challenge: The South Korean Experience’, Global Policy, 8(3), pp. 294–302. Available at:
  8. Ostwald, K. and Dierkes, J. (2018) ‘Canada’s foreign policy and bureaucratic (un)responsiveness: public diplomacy in the digital domain’, Canadian Foreign Policy Journal, 24(2), pp. 202–222. Available at:
  9. Pawlak, P. (2016) ‘Capacity Building in Cyberspace as an Instrument of Foreign Policy’, Global Policy, 7(1), pp. 83–92. Available at:

Recommended Reading

  • Attatfa, A., Renaud, K. and Paoli, S.D. (2020) ‘Cyber Diplomacy: A Systematic Literature Review’, Procedia Computer Science, 176, pp. 60–69. Available at:
  • Barrinha, A. and Renard, T. (2017) ‘Cyber-diplomacy: the making of an international society in the digital age’, Global Affairs, 3(4–5), pp. 353–364. Available at:
  • Barrinha, A. and Renard, T. (2020) ‘Power and diplomacy in the post-liberal cyberspace’, International Affairs, 96(3), pp. 749–766. Available at:
  • Di Martino, L. (2021) ‘Fear and empathy in international relations: Diplomacy, cyber engagement and Australian foreign policy’, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy [Preprint]. Available at:
  • Ebert, H. and Maurer, T. (2013) ‘Contested Cyberspace and Rising Powers’, Third World Quarterly, 34(6), pp. 1054–1074. Available at:
  • Friis, K. and Ringsmose, J. (eds) (2016) Conflict in cyber space: theoretical, strategic and legal perspectives. London ; New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group (Routledge studies in conflict, security and technology).
  • Gorwa, R. and Smeets, M. (2019) Cyber Conflict in Political Science: A Review of Methods and Literature. preprint. SocArXiv. Available at:
  • Hughes, R. (2010) ‘A treaty for cyberspace’, International Affairs, 86(2), pp. 523–541. Available at:
  • Jacobsen, J.T. (2021) ‘Cyber offense in NATO: challenges and opportunities’, International Affairs, 97(3), pp. 703–720. Available at:
  • Malone, E.F. and Malone, M.J. (2013) ‘The “wicked problem” of cybersecurity policy: analysis of United States and Canadian policy response’, Canadian Foreign Policy Journal, 19(2), pp. 158–177. Available at:
  • Plagemann, J. and Destradi, S. (2019) ‘Populism and Foreign Policy: The Case of India’, Foreign Policy Analysis, 15(2), pp. 283–301. Available at:
  • Porter, A.L. and Bendiek, A. (2013) ‘European Cyber Security Policy within a Global Multistakeholder Structure’, European Foreign Affairs Review, 18(Issue 2), pp. 155–180. Available at:
  • Schaake, M. and Vermeulen, M. (2016) ‘Towards a values-based European foreign policy to cybersecurity’, Journal of Cyber Policy, 1(1), pp. 75–84. Available at:
  • Tsygankov, A.P. (ed.) (2018) Routledge handbook of Russian foreign policy. London ; New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.

Lecture 9: Ethics of Foreign Policy

Core Required Reading

  1. Abrahamsen, R. and Williams, P. (2001) ‘Ethics and Foreign Policy: The Antinomies of New Labour’s “Third Way” in Sub-Saharan Africa’, Political Studies, 49(2), pp. 249–264. Available at:
  2. Bulley, D. (2010) ‘The politics of ethical foreign policy: A responsibility to protect whom?’, European Journal of International Relations, 16(3), pp. 441–461. Available at:
  3. Bulley, D. (2014) ‘Foreign Policy as Ethics: Toward a Re-Evaluation of Values’, Foreign Policy Analysis, 10(2), pp. 165–180. Available at:
  4. Ceccoli, S. (2019) ‘“The Language We Use Matters”: Streams, Narratives, and the Obama Administration Drone Strike Program in Yemen’, Presidential Studies Quarterly, 49(3), pp. 498–526. Available at:
  5. Gaskarth, J. (2013) ‘Interpreting Ethical Foreign Policy: Traditions and Dilemmas for Policymakers’, The British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 15(2), pp. 192–209. Available at:
  6. McCRISKEN, T. (2011) ‘Ten years on: Obama’s war on terrorism in rhetoric and practice’, International Affairs, 87(4), pp. 781–801. Available at:
  7. McCrisken, T. (2013) ‘Obama’s Drone War’, Survival, 55(2), pp. 97–122. Available at:
  8. Robinson, F. (2021) ‘Feminist foreign policy as ethical foreign policy? A care ethics perspective’, Journal of International Political Theory, 17(1), pp. 20–37. Available at:

Recommended Reading

  • Brostrom, J. (2016) ‘Morality and the national interest: towards a “moral realist” research agenda’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 29(4), pp. 1624–1639. Available at:
  • Brown, C. (2002) ‘On Morality, Self‐interest and Foreign Policy’, Government and Opposition, 37(2), pp. 173–189. Available at:
  • Bulley, D. (2010) ‘Home is Where the Human is? Ethics, Intervention and Hospitality in Kosovo’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 39(1), pp. 43–63. Available at:
  • Chandler, D. (2013) ‘Resilience ethics: responsibility and the globally embedded subject’, Ethics & Global Politics, 6(3), pp. 175–194. Available at:
  • Doyle, T.E. (2013) ‘Liberal democracy and nuclear despotism: two ethical foreign policy dilemmas’, Ethics & Global Politics, 6(3), pp. 155–174. Available at:
  • Gaskarth, J. (2011) ‘Where would we be without rules? A virtue ethics approach to foreign policy analysis’, Review of International Studies, 37(1), pp. 393–415. Available at:
  • Gilmore, J. (2014) ‘The uncertain merger of values and interests in UK foreign policy’, International Affairs, 90(3), pp. 541–557. Available at:
  • Halliday, F. (1994) ‘Theory and Ethics in International Relations: the Contradictions of C. Wright Mills’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 23(2), pp. 377–385. Available at:
  • Hoffmann, S. (1996) ‘In Defense of Mother Teresa: Morality in Foreign Policy’, Foreign Affairs, 75(2), p. 172. Available at:
  • Johnson, L.K. (2020) ‘Reflections on the ethics and effectiveness of America’s “third option”: covert action and U.S. foreign policy’, Intelligence and National Security, 35(5), pp. 669–685. Available at:
  • Karkour, H.L. (2018) ‘Unipolarity’s unpeacefulness and US foreign policy: consequences of a “coherent system of irrationality”’, International Relations, 32(1), pp. 60–79. Available at:
  • Kreps, S. and Maxey, S. (2018) ‘Mechanisms of Morality: Sources of Support for Humanitarian Intervention’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 62(8), pp. 1814–1842. Available at:
  • Lebow, R.N. (2020) ‘Max Weber’s ethics’, Journal of International Political Theory, 16(3), pp. 305–322. Available at:
  • Malik, M. (2008) ‘Engaging with Extremists’, International Relations, 22(1), pp. 85–104. Available at:
  • Manners, I. (2008) ‘The normative ethics of the European Union’, International Affairs, 84(1), pp. 45–60. Available at:
  • Molloy, S. (2020) ‘Realism and reflexivity: Morgenthau, academic freedom and dissent’, European Journal of International Relations, 26(2), pp. 321–343. Available at:
  • Peksen, D. (2019) ‘Political Effectiveness, Negative Externalities, and the Ethics of Economic Sanctions’, Ethics & International Affairs, 33(3), pp. 279–289. Available at:
  • Poulsen, L.N.S. (2020) ‘Loyalty in world politics’, European Journal of International Relations, 26(4), pp. 1156–1177. Available at:

Lecture 10: Future and Challenges of Foreign Policy Analysis

Core Required Reading

  1. Hudson, V.M. and Day, B.S. (2020) Foreign policy analysis: classic and contemporary theory. Third edition. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • The Future of Foreign Policy Analysis
  1. Morin, J.-F. and Paquin, J. (2018) Foreign Policy Analysis: A Toolbox. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  • What Are the Current Challenges to FPA?

Recommended Reading

  • Alessandri, E. (2010) ‘Turkey’s New Foreign Policy and the Future of Turkey–EU Relations’, The International Spectator, 45(3), pp. 85–100. Available at:
  • Bisley, N. et al. (2022) ‘For a progressive realism: Australian foreign policy in the 21st century’, Australian Journal of International Affairs, 76(2), pp. 138–160. Available at:
  • Blankshain, J.D., Cooper, D.A. and Gvosdev, N.K. (2021) ‘Bridging the Other Side of the Gap: Teaching “Practical Theory” to Future Practitioners’, International Studies Perspectives, 22(2), pp. 240–260. Available at:
  • Cannizzaro, E. (2018) ‘The Iran Nuclear Deal and the Future of the European Foreign Policy’, European Papers – A Journal on Law and Integration, 2018 3, p. 35. Available at:
  • Chand, H.P. (2021) ‘Nepal’s Engagement in BRI and MCC: Implications on Nepal’s Geopolitics and Foreign Policy’, Journal of Political Science, pp. 60–77. Available at:
  • Chapnick, A. (2019) ‘The origins of Canada’s feminist foreign policy’, International Journal: Canada’s Journal of Global Policy Analysis, 74(2), pp. 191–205. Available at:
  • Cornelia-Adriana Baciu (2018) ‘Security Transformation and Multilateralism: The Future of Irish Defence and Foreign Policy’, Irish Studies in International Affairs, 29, p. 97. Available at:
  • Damro, C., Heins, E. and Scott, A. (eds) (2021) European futures: challenges and crossroads for the European Union of 2050. Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, NY: Routledge (Routledge advances in European politics).
  • Gadinger, F. and Peters, D. (2016) ‘Feedback loops in a world of complexity: a cybernetic approach at the interface of foreign policy analysis and international relations theory’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 29(1), pp. 251–269. Available at:
  • Gaskarth, J. and Oppermann, K. (2021) ‘Clashing Traditions: German Foreign Policy in a New Era’, International Studies Perspectives, 22(1), pp. 84–105. Available at:
  • Hellmann, G. (1996) ‘Goodbye Bismarck? The Foreign Policy of Contemporary Germany’, Mershon International Studies Review, 40(1), p. 1. Available at:
  • Irondelle, B. (2008) ‘European Foreign Policy: the End of French Europe?’, Journal of European Integration, 30(1), pp. 153–168. Available at:
  • Karaganov, S. (2021) ‘Russian Foreign Policy: Three Historical Stages and Two Future Scenarios’, Russian Politics, 6(4), pp. 416–434. Available at:
  • Leffler, M.P. (2003) ‘9/11 and the Past and Future of American Foreign Policy’, International Affairs, 79(5), pp. 1045–1063. Available at:
  • Mandela, N. (1993) ‘South Africa’s Future Foreign Policy’, Foreign Affairs, 72(5), p. 86. Available at:
  • Müller, P., Pomorska, K. and Tonra, B. (2021) ‘The Domestic Challenge to EU Foreign Policy-Making: From Europeanisation to de-Europeanisation?’, Journal of European Integration, 43(5), pp. 519–534. Available at:
  • Nathan, A.J. and Zhang, B. (2022) ‘“A Shared Future for Mankind”: Rhetoric and Reality in Chinese Foreign Policy under Xi Jinping’, Journal of Contemporary China, 31(133), pp. 57–71. Available at:
  • Place, J.J. and Tindall, C. (2021) ‘The European Union’s Foreign Policy Future: Towards an Integrated European Defence’, in C.S. Christensen and V. Maisaia (eds) Advances in Information Security, Privacy, and Ethics. IGI Global, pp. 74–97. Available at:

Lecture 11: Doing Foreign Policy Analysis

Case Studies

  1. A comparison of the foreign policies of the EU and its members toward China:

Brown, S.A.W. (2022) ‘Fraying at the Edges: A Subsystems/Normative Power Analysis of the EU’s “One China Policy/Policies”’, The China Quarterly, pp. 1–24. Available at:

  1. Foreign policy responses to terrorism by democratic governments:

Savun, B. and Phillips, B.J. (2009) ‘Democracy, Foreign Policy, and Terrorism’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 53(6), pp. 878–904. Available at:

  1. Foreign policies of Central Asian nations in response to Chinese energy diplomacy:

Xuanli Liao, J. (2021) ‘China’s energy diplomacy towards Central Asia and the implications on its “belt and road initiative”’, The Pacific Review, 34(3), pp. 490–522. Available at:

Recommended Reading

  • Al-Majali, R.M. and Alkhalaileh, A.-M.A.A. (2019) ‘Jordanian Foreign Policy in Confrontation with Extremism and Terrorism: The International Alliance Is a Model’, Journal of Politics and Law, 12(4), p. 56. Available at:
  • Asongu, S.A. et al. (2021) ‘Fighting terrorism in Africa when existing terrorism levels matter’, Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 13(1), pp. 1–22. Available at:
  • Baker-Beall, C. (2016) The European Union’s fight against terrorism: Discourse, Policies, Identity. Manchester University Press. Available at:
  • Besada, H. and Salam, J. (2017) ‘China’s Energy Strategy in the MENA Region’, China Quarterly of International Strategic Studies, 03(04), pp. 597–619. Available at:
  • Boutton, A. and Carter, D.B. (2014) ‘Fair-Weather Allies? Terrorism and the Allocation of US Foreign Aid’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 58(7), pp. 1144–1173. Available at:
  • Callahan, W.A. (2012) ‘China’s Strategic Futures’, Asian Survey, 52(4), pp. 617–642. Available at:
  • Chaban, N. and Knodt, M. (2015) ‘Energy diplomacy in the context of multistakeholder diplomacy: The EU and BICS’, Cooperation and Conflict, 50(4), pp. 457–474. Available at:
  • Cottey, A. (2019) ‘Europe and China’s sea disputes: between normative politics, power balancing and acquiescence’, European Security, 28(4), pp. 473–492. Available at:
  • Criekemans, D. (2022) Geopolitics and International Relations: Grounding World Politics Anew. Brill | Nijhoff. Available at:
  • Flores-Macías, G.A. and Kreps, S.E. (2013) ‘The Foreign Policy Consequences of Trade: China’s Commercial Relations with Africa and Latin America, 1992–2006’, The Journal of Politics, 75(2), pp. 357–371. Available at:
  • Kaunert, C. et al. (2014) ‘Introduction: rethinking Western foreign policy and the Middle East’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 27(3), pp. 495–502. Available at:
  • Kumamoto, R. (1991) ‘Diplomacy from below: International terrorism and American foreign relations, 1945–1962’, Terrorism, 14(1), pp. 31–48. Available at:
  • Lai, H.H. (2007) ‘China’s oil diplomacy: is it a global security threat?’, Third World Quarterly, 28(3), pp. 519–537. Available at:
  • Levy, K. and Révész, Á. (2022) ‘No Common Ground: A Spatial-Relational Analysis of EU-China Relations’, Journal of Chinese Political Science, 27(3), pp. 457–491. Available at:
  • Milton, D.J. (2017) ‘Dangerous work: Terrorism against U.S. diplomats’, Contemporary Security Policy, 38(3), pp. 345–370. Available at:
  • O’brien, S.P. (1996) ‘Foreign Policy Crises and the Resort to Terrorism: A Time-Series Analysis of Conflict Linkages’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 40(2), pp. 320–335. Available at:
  • Otmazgin, N. (2021) ‘An “East Asian” Public Diplomacy? Lessons from Japan, South Korea, and China’, Asian Perspective, 45(3), pp. 621–644. Available at:
  • Pradhan, R. (2019) ‘Petropolitics and Pipeline Diplomacy in Central Asia: Can India Afford to Wait in the Wings?’, India Quarterly: A Journal of International Affairs, 75(4), pp. 472–489. Available at:
  • Reeves, J. (2014) ‘Rethinking weak state behavior: Mongolia’s foreign policy toward China’, International Politics, 51(2), pp. 254–271. Available at:
  • Trubowitz, P. and Mellow, N. (2011) ‘Foreign policy, bipartisanship and the paradox of post-September 11 America’, International Politics, 48(2–3), pp. 164–187. Available at:
  • Wong, R.Y. (2006) The Europeanization of French Foreign Policy: France and the EU in East Asia. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK. Available at:
  • Wu, F. (2015) ‘China’s Puzzling Energy Diplomacy Toward Iran’, Asian Perspective, 39(1), pp. 47–69. Available at:
  • Zhou, J. (2019) ‘China’s Core Interests and Dilemma in Foreign Policy Practice’, Pacific Focus, 34(1), pp. 31–54. Available at:

Required Students’ Skills

Read the course materials carefully and focus on the core and recommended readings that will greatly increase your level of knowledge.

Learn how to use search engines for academic articles, primarily Web of Science, JSTOR, SAGE Journals, and Google Scholar.

To pass an essay assignment with flying colours, you must master the Harvard citation style. Also, it is highly recommended to read the following publication about research methods and design to improve your essay score:

  • Lamont, C. and Boduszynski, M. (2020) Research methods in politics and international relations. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.

Throughout the course, students are also expected to familiarise themselves with leading academic journals to locate the latest articles, thereby connecting with the international relations academic community.