Geopolitics and Energy Security of Eurasia – Postgraduate Course Syllabus

Course Description

The primary aim of the course is to provide postgraduate students with a comprehensive understanding of the diverse and multifaceted policy implications of energy-related challenges in Eurasia. In addition, by considering historical, economic, logistical, social, national and international contexts, the course aims to promote the ability to assess the political dimensions of energy security and critical geopolitics. Students should be able to identify key energy-related issues affecting Eurasian regional and global politics, international energy governance mechanisms, and their limitations and vulnerabilities; have a thorough understanding of regional energy policy agendas; be able to analyse likely trends of political agendas related to energy issues; and conduct case studies on specific topics of the Eurasian energy scale.

Applying the Aristotelian method of teaching, I will focus on developing both the intellectual and moral virtues of students. Intellectual virtues are character traits such as the ability to judge the truth and comprehend the nature of things, whereas moral virtues are habits of living that involve the whole person and include justice, temperance, prudence, and fortitude, which are characterised by desire and emotion.

In addition, I designed the course with the following implications in mind: to understand the diverse backgrounds of undergraduate students, to provide full support to non-native speakers in relation to academic English, and to engage the students in practical discussions and seminars. An inclusive curriculum implements policies and resources to ensure that all students are supported in their learning.

Learning Objectives and Outcomes

  • Analyse and apply diverse theoretical approaches to energy geopolitics.
  • Examine critically the reasons for cooperation in energy security.
  • Engage in contemporary theoretical discussions of the energy diplomacy of Eurasian states.
  • Construct and defend theoretically sophisticated arguments regarding Eurasian energy.
  • Learn to think and write critically about crucial energy security concepts in Eurasia.
  • Effective communication in professional applications of energy security and geopolitics.
  • Develop innovative ways of thinking about the practical implications of energy policy in Eurasia (pipelines politics, geopolitics of Russian gas, Northeast Asia’s energy hub, India’s energy role). 

Reading Materials

Foundation Texts

  1. Beringer, S.L., Maier, S. and Thiel, M. (eds) (2019) EU Development Policies: Between Norms and Geopolitics. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  2. Dannreuther, R. (2017) Energy security. Cambridge, UK; Malden, MA: Polity Press.
  3. Jägerskog, A., Schulz, M. and Swain, A. (eds) (2019) Routledge handbook on Middle East security. London Taylor & Francis (Routledge handbooks).
  4. Leandro, F.J.B.S. and Duarte, P.A.B. (eds) (2020) The Belt and Road Initiative: An Old Archetype of a New Development Model. Singapore: Springer Singapore. Available at:
  5. Leandro, F.J.B.S., Branco, C. and Caba-Maria, F. (eds) (2021) The geopolitics of Iran. Singapore: Springer (Studies in Iranian politics).
  6. Likhacheva, A. (ed.) (2022) Arctic Fever: Political, Economic & Environmental Aspects. Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore. Available at:
  7. Patnaik, A. (2019) Central Asia: geopolitics, security and stability. First issued in paperback. Abingdon: Routledge.
  8. Petersen, A. (2017) Eurasia’s shifting geopolitical tectonic plates: global perspective, local theaters. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books (Contemporary Central Asia : societes, oolitics, and cultures).
  9. Prontera, A. (2021) The new politics of energy security in the European Union and beyond: states, markets, institutions. First issued in paperback. London New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
  10. Rozman, G. and Liow, J.C. (eds) (2018) International Relations and Asia’s Southern Tier: ASEAN, Australia, and India. Singapore: Springer Singapore. Available at:
  11. Short, J.R. (2022) Geopolitics: making sense of a changing world. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
  12. Vivoda, V. (2014) Energy security in Japan: challenges after Fukushima. Farnham, Surrey, England ; Burlington, VT: Ashgate (Transforming environmental politics and policy).
  13. YOO, T.J. (2022) KOREAS: the birth of two nations divided. S.l.: UNIV OF CALIFORNIA PRESS.

Online Reports

  • bp Statistical Review of World Energy 2022
  • European Commission Quarterly Report on European Gas Markets
  • IEA World Energy Outlook 2022
  • OPEC Monthly Oil Market Report

Supportive Texts

  • Dodds, K., Kuus, M. and Sharp, J.P. (eds) (2013) The Ashgate research companion to critical geopolitics. Farnham, Surrey, England ; Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
  • Mankoff, J. (2022) Empires of Eurasia: how imperial legacies shape international security. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Okunev, I.I. (2021) Political geography. English edition. Bruxelles: Peter Lang.
  • Smil, V. (2017) Energy and civilization: a history. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
  • Yergin, D. (2021) The new map: energy, climate, and the clash of nations. London: Penguin Books.

Lecture materials include a selection of books, scholarly articles and relevant online reports tailored to each individual lecture.

Additionally, recommended readings based on scholarly articles are provided for each lecture to introduce students to academic analytical and critical thinking.

The quality of teaching, course content, and literature included reflects the advanced practice of worldwide recognised departments of politics and international relations.

Course Content

Lecture 1: Energy Security and Geopolitics

Core Required Reading

  1. Dannreuther, R. (2017) Energy security. Cambridge, UK; Malden, MA: Polity Press.
  • Energy Security: An Analytical and Theoretical Framework
  • The History of Energy Security
  • Energy Security and Domestic Security
  • Energy Security and Energy Markets
  1. Short, J.R. (2022) Geopolitics: making sense of a changing world. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Writings
  • Spaces
  • Becomings
  1. Barnes, J. and Jaffe, A.M. (2006) ‘The Persian Gulf and the Geopolitics of Oil’, Survival, 48(1), pp. 143–162. Available at:
  2. Hendrix, C.S. (2018) ‘Cold War Geopolitics and the Making of the Oil Curse’, Journal of Global Security Studies, 3(1), pp. 2–22. Available at:
  3. Rubinovitz, Z. and Rettig, E. (2018) ‘Crude Peace: The Role of Oil Trade in the Israeli-Egyptian Peace Negotiations’, International Studies Quarterly [Preprint]. Available at:

Introduction to Online Reports – why do we need them?

  • bp Statistical Review of World Energy 2022
  • European Commission Quarterly Report on European Gas Markets
  • IEA World Energy Outlook 2022
  • OPEC Monthly Oil Market Report

Recommended Reading

Lecture 2: European Union – Normative Power Europe

Core Required Reading

Beringer, S.L., Maier, S. and Thiel, M. (eds) (2019) EU Development Policies: Between Norms and Geopolitics. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:

  • Introduction
  • Energy, Climate Change and EU Development Policy
  • Theorizing the EU’s International Promotion of LGBTI Rights Policies in the Global South
  • European Involvement in China’s Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank: Geopolitical Pragmatism or Normative Engagement?
  • New Directions in EU-Africa Development Initiatives
  • Conclusion

Recommended Reading

  • Bicchi, F. (2006) ‘“Our size fits all”: normative power Europe and the Mediterranean’, Journal of European Public Policy, 13(2), pp. 286–303. Available at:
  • Bosse, G. and Schmidt-Felzmann, A. (2011) ‘The Geopolitics of Energy Supply in the “Wider Europe”’, Geopolitics, 16(3), pp. 479–485. Available at:
  • Diez, T. (2005) ‘Constructing the Self and Changing Others: Reconsidering `Normative Power Europe’’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 33(3), pp. 613–636. Available at:
  • Diez, T. (2013) ‘Normative power as hegemony’, Cooperation and Conflict, 48(2), pp. 194–210. Available at:
  • Franza, L. and Van Der Linde, C. (2017) ‘Geopolitics and the Foreign Policy Dimension of EU Energy Security’, in S.S. Andersen, A. Goldthau, and N. Sitter (eds) Energy Union. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 85–98. Available at:
  • Gordon, N. and Pardo, S. (2015) ‘Normative Power Europe meets the Israeli-Palestinian conflict’, Asia Europe Journal, 13(3), pp. 265–274. Available at:
  • Harpaz, G. and Shamis, A. (2010) ‘Normative Power Europe and the State of Israel: An Illegitimate EUtopia?: NORMATIVE POWER EUROPE AND THE STATE OF ISRAEL’, JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 48(3), pp. 579–616. Available at:
  • Hyde-Price, A. (2006) ‘“Normative” power Europe: a realist critique’, Journal of European Public Policy, 13(2), pp. 217–234. Available at:
  • Janusch, H. (2016) ‘Normative power and the logic of arguing: Rationalization of weakness or relinquishment of strength?’, Cooperation and Conflict, 51(4), pp. 504–521. Available at:
  • Kavalski, E. (2013) ‘The struggle for recognition of normative powers: Normative power Europe and normative power China in context’, Cooperation and Conflict, 48(2), pp. 247–267. Available at:
  • Klinke, I. (2012) ‘Postmodern Geopolitics? The European Union Eyes Russia’, Europe-Asia Studies, 64(5), pp. 929–947. Available at:
  • Kuus, M. (2007) Geopolitics Reframed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan US. Available at:
  • Lavenex, S. and Schimmelfennig, F. (2009) ‘EU rules beyond EU borders: theorizing external governance in European politics’, Journal of European Public Policy, 16(6), pp. 791–812. Available at:
  • Leonard, M. et al. (2019) ‘Securing Europe’s Economic Sovereignty’, Survival, 61(5), pp. 75–98. Available at:
  • Meunier, S. and Nicolaïdis, K. (2006) ‘The European Union as a conflicted trade power’, Journal of European Public Policy, 13(6), pp. 906–925. Available at:
  • Nitoiu, C. and Sus, M. (2019) ‘Introduction: The Rise of Geopolitics in the EU’s Approach in its Eastern Neighbourhood’, Geopolitics, 24(1), pp. 1–19. Available at:
  • Oberthür, S. and Dupont, C. (2021) ‘The European Union’s international climate leadership: towards a grand climate strategy?’, Journal of European Public Policy, 28(7), pp. 1095–1114. Available at:
  • Petsinis, V. (2020) ‘Geopolitics, Ethnopolitics and the EU: The Cases of Serbia and Latvia’, Ethnopolitics, 19(2), pp. 107–124. Available at:
  • Proedrou, F. (2020) ‘Anthropocene Geopolitics and Foreign Policy: Exploring the Link in the EU Case’, Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, 45(2), pp. 83–101. Available at:
  • Raspotnik, A. (2018) The European Union and the Geopolitics of the Arctic. Edward Elgar Publishing. Available at:
  • Sjursen, H. (2006) ‘The EU as a “normative” power: how can this be?’, Journal of European Public Policy, 13(2), pp. 235–251. Available at:
  • Szent-Ivanyi, B. (2019) ‘Democracy promotion and the normative power Europe framework: the European Union in South Eastern Europe, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia, edited by Marek Neuman’, Democratization, 26(3), pp. 555–557. Available at:
  • Wagnsson, C. (2010) ‘Divided power Europe: normative divergences among the EU “big three”’, Journal of European Public Policy, 17(8), pp. 1089–1105. Available at:
  • Whitman, R.G. (2013) ‘The neo-normative turn in theorising the EU’s international presence’, Cooperation and Conflict, 48(2), pp. 171–193. Available at:

Lecture 3: European Union – Energy Policy, LNG, and Pipelines

Core Required Reading

Prontera, A. (2021) The new politics of energy security in the European Union and beyond: states, markets, institutions. First issued in paperback. London New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.

  • Introduction
  • The Politics of EU External Energy Governance: the Caspian Sea Basin and Central Asia
  • The New Politics of Pipeline: from the North Stream to the Southern Gas Corridor
  • The Politics of LNG Development in Western and Eastern Europe
  • Conclusion

Recommended Reading

  • Bocquillon, P. and Maltby, T. (2017) ‘The more the merrier? Assessing the impact of enlargement on EU performance in energy and climate change policies’, East European Politics, 33(1), pp. 88–105. Available at:
  • Bocse, A.-M. (2019) ‘EU Energy Diplomacy: Searching for New Suppliers in Azerbaijan and Iran’, Geopolitics, 24(1), pp. 145–173. Available at:
  • Correljé, A. and van der Linde, C. (2006) ‘Energy supply security and geopolitics: A European perspective’, Energy Policy, 34(5), pp. 532–543. Available at:
  • Isoaho, K., Moilanen, F. and Toikka, A. (2019) ‘A Big Data View of the European Energy Union: Shifting from “a Floating Signifier” to an Active Driver of Decarbonisation?’, Politics and Governance, 7(1), pp. 28–44. Available at:
  • Judge, A. and Maltby, T. (2017) ‘European Energy Union? Caught between securitisation and “riskification”’, European Journal of International Security, 2(2), pp. 179–202. Available at:
  • Leal-Arcas, R., Alemany Ríos, J. and Grasso, C. (2015) ‘The European Union and its energy security challenges: engagement through and with networks’, Contemporary Politics, 21(3), pp. 273–293. Available at:
  • Leal-Arcas, R., Lesniewska, F. and Proedrou, F. (2018) ‘Prosumers: New Actors in EU Energy Security’, in F. Amtenbrink, D. Prévost, and R.A. Wessel (eds) Netherlands Yearbook of International Law 2017. The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press (Netherlands Yearbook of International Law), pp. 139–172. Available at:
  • Loe, J.S.P. (2019) ‘Clash of Realities: Gazprom’s Reasoning on the EU Gas Trade’, Europe-Asia Studies, 71(7), pp. 1122–1139. Available at:
  • Mayer, M. and Peters, S. (2017) ‘Shift of the EU Energy Policy and China’s Strategic Opportunity’, China Quarterly of International Strategic Studies, 03(01), pp. 137–158. Available at:
  • Michail, N.A. and Melas, K.D. (2022) ‘Geopolitical Risk and the LNG-LPG Trade’, Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy, 28(3), pp. 243–265. Available at:
  • Odintsov, N. (2022) ‘The European Commission Against Gazprom: The Geo-Economic Conflict Over the Gas Market Regime in Europe’, Europe-Asia Studies, pp. 1–24. Available at:
  • Özpek, B.B. (2013) ‘Securing energy or energising security: the impact of Russia’s energy policy on Turkey’s accession to the European Union’, Journal of International Relations and Development, 16(3), pp. 358–379. Available at:
  • Pogoretskyy, V. and Talus, K. (2020) ‘The WTO Panel Report in EU–Energy Package and Its Implications for the EU’s Gas Market and Energy Security’, World Trade Review, 19(4), pp. 531–549. Available at:
  • Prontera, A. (2018) ‘The new politics of energy security and the rise of the catalytic state in southern Europe’, Journal of Public Policy, 38(4), pp. 511–551. Available at:
  • Prontera, A. (2020) ‘Beyond the regulatory state: rethinking energy security governance and politics in the European Union’, Comparative European Politics, 18(3), pp. 330–362. Available at:
  • Romanova, T. (2016) ‘Is Russian Energy Policy towards the EU Only about Geopolitics? The Case of the Third Liberalisation Package’, Geopolitics, 21(4), pp. 857–879. Available at:
  • Schmidt-Felzmann, A. (2020) ‘Gazprom’s Nord Stream 2 and diffuse authority in the EU: managing authority challenges regarding Russian gas supplies through the Baltic Sea’, Journal of European Integration, 42(1), pp. 129–145. Available at:
  • Sharples, J.D. (2016) ‘The Shifting Geopolitics of Russia’s Natural Gas Exports and Their Impact on EU-Russia Gas Relations’, Geopolitics, 21(4), pp. 880–912. Available at:
  • Siddi, M. (2016) ‘The EU’s Energy Union: A Sustainable Path to Energy Security?’, The International Spectator, 51(1), pp. 131–144. Available at:
  • Skalamera, M. (2018) ‘Revisiting the Nabucco Debacle: Myths and Realities’, Problems of Post-Communism, 65(1), pp. 18–36. Available at:
  • Tosun, J. and Mišić, M. (2020) ‘Conferring authority in the European Union: citizens’ policy priorities for the European Energy Union’, Journal of European Integration, 42(1), pp. 19–38. Available at:
  • Van Der Meulen, E.F. (2009) ‘Gas Supply and EU–Russia Relations’, Europe-Asia Studies, 61(5), pp. 833–856. Available at:
  • Vogler, J. (2013) ‘Changing conceptions of climate and energy security in Europe’, Environmental Politics, 22(4), pp. 627–645. Available at:
  • Wendling, Z.A. (2017) ‘Legislative Behavior in the Seventh European Parliament and the Regulation of Shale Gas Development in the European Union: European Regulation of Shale Gas’, Review of Policy Research, 34(2), pp. 270–300. Available at:
  • Youngs, R. (2020) ‘EU foreign policy and energy strategy: bounded contestation’, Journal of European Integration, 42(1), pp. 147–162. Available at:
  • Zha, D. (2015) ‘Energy security in China–European Union relations: framing further efforts of collaboration’, Contemporary Politics, 21(3), pp. 308–322. Available at:
  • Ziegler, C.E. (2013) ‘Energy Pipeline Networks and Trust: The European Union and Russia in Comparative Perspective’, International Relations, 27(1), pp. 3–29. Available at:

Lecture 4: Middle East – Iran

Core Required Reading

  1. Leandro, F.J.B.S., Branco, C. and Caba-Maria, F. (eds) (2021) The geopolitics of Iran. Singapore: Springer (Studies in Iranian politics).
  • Neighbors and Rivals: Iran and Great Power Diplomacy
  • The Evolution of Iran’s Foreign Policy: International Balancing Act
  • Controversial Efficiency? The Experience of the U.S. Sanctions Against Iran
  • Shia Geopolitics or Religious Tourism? Political Convergence of Iran and Iraq in the Light of Arbaeen Pilgrimage
  • De-Coding Fabric of Iran-Israeli Hostility in the Regional Context
  1. Jägerskog, A., Schulz, M. and Swain, A. (eds) (2019) Routledge handbook on Middle East security. London Taylor & Francis (Routledge handbooks).
  • The Water-Energy-Food Nexus in the MENA region: securities of the future
  • Climate-Related Security Risks in the Middle East
  • Sunni-Shi’i Relations and the Iran-Saudi Security Dynamic

Recommended Reading

  • Abbasov, N. and Souleimanov, E.A. (2022) ‘Azerbaijan, Israel, and Iran: An Unlikely Triangle Shaping the Northern Middle East’, Middle East Policy, 29(1), pp. 139–153. Available at:
  • Abolhosseini, S. et al. (2017) ‘Energy security and competition over energy resources in Iran and Caucasus region’, AIMS Energy, 5(2), pp. 224–238. Available at:
  • Ahmadian, H. (2021) ‘Iran and the New Geopolitics of the Middle East: In Search of Equilibrium’, Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, 23(3), pp. 458–472. Available at:
  • Ahmadian, H. and Mohseni, P. (2021) ‘From detente to containment: the emergence of Iran’s new Saudi strategy’, International Affairs, 97(3), pp. 779–799. Available at:
  • Ahmed, Z.S. and Bhatnagar, S. (2018) ‘The India-Iran-Pakistan Triad: Comprehending the Correlation of Geo-economics and Geopolitics’, Asian Studies Review, 42(3), pp. 517–536. Available at:
  • Akbarzadeh, S. (2015) ‘Iran and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Ideology and Realpolitik in Iranian Foreign Policy’, Australian Journal of International Affairs, 69(1), pp. 88–103. Available at:
  • Al Sarhan, A.S. (2022) ‘Economic Dimension in Iran’s Foreign Policy Towards Iraq: 2003–2020’, New Political Science, 44(2), pp. 324–335. Available at:
  • Alipour, M. et al. (2018) ‘Long-term policy evaluation: Application of a new robust decision framework for Iran’s energy exports security’, Energy, 157, pp. 914–931. Available at:
  • Aras, B. and Falk, R. (2015) ‘Authoritarian “geopolitics” of survival in the Arab Spring’, Third World Quarterly, 36(2), pp. 322–336. Available at:
  • Bahgat, G. (2010) ‘Iran’s Role in Europe’s Energy Security: An Assessment’, Iranian Studies, 43(3), pp. 333–347. Available at:
  • Bahgat, G. (2010) ‘Israel’s energy security: the Caspian Sea and the Middle East’, Israel Affairs, 16(3), pp. 406–415. Available at:
  • Bahgat, G. (2015) ‘Geopolitics of Energy: Iran, Turkey, and Europe’, Mediterranean Quarterly, 26(3), pp. 49–66. Available at:
  • Dehghani Madvar, M. et al. (2018) ‘Analysis of stakeholder roles and the challenges of solar energy utilization in Iran’, International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies, 13(4), pp. 438–451. Available at:
  • Göksel, O. (2015) ‘Beyond Countering Iran: A Political Economy of Azerbaijan-Israel Relations’, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 42(4), pp. 655–675. Available at:
  • Guo, F., Huang, C. and Wu, X. (2019) ‘Strategic analysis on the construction of new energy corridor China–Pakistan–Iran–Turkey’, Energy Reports, 5, pp. 828–841. Available at:
  • Herzig, E. (2004) ‘Regionalism, Iran and Central Asia’, International Affairs, 80(3), pp. 503–517. Available at:
  • Hong, Z. (2014) ‘China’s Dilemma on Iran: between energy security and a responsible rising power’, Journal of Contemporary China, 23(87), pp. 408–424. Available at:
  • Houshisadat, M. (2015) ‘The Role of Iran’s Future Liquid Natural Gas Supply in the Eu’s Energy Security’, Asian Affairs, 46(3), pp. 458–475. Available at:
  • Kalehsar, O.S. (2020) ‘The Geopolitics of U.S. Energy Sanctions Against Iran’, Middle East Policy, 27(2), pp. 108–119. Available at:
  • Lob, E. (2016) ‘THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN’S FOREIGN POLICY AND CONSTRUCTION JIHAD’S DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 48(2), pp. 313–338. Available at:
  • Matin, K. (2007) ‘Uneven and Combined Development in World History: The International Relations of State-formation in Premodern Iran’, European Journal of International Relations, 13(3), pp. 419–447. Available at:
  • Mercille, J. and Jones, A. (2009) ‘Practicing Radical Geopolitics: Logics of Power and the Iranian Nuclear “Crisis”’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 99(5), pp. 856–862. Available at:
  • Monshipouri, M. and Heiran-Nia, J. (2021) ‘Iran’s Security Interests and Policies in the South Caucasus’, Iran and the Caucasus, 25(3), pp. 284–300. Available at:
  • Noorali, H. and Ahmadi, S.A. (2022) ‘Iran’s new geopolitics: heartland of the world’s corridors’, GeoJournal [Preprint]. Available at:
  • Nukii, M. (2018) ‘Japan–Iran Relations since the 2015 Iran Nuclear Deal’, Contemporary Review of the Middle East, 5(3), pp. 215–231. Available at:
  • Omelicheva, M.Y. (2012) ‘Russia’s Foreign Policy toward Iran: A Critical Geopolitics Perspective’, Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, 14(3), pp. 331–344. Available at:
  • Omidi, A. and Noolkar-Oak, G. (2022) ‘Geopolitics of Chabahar Port for Iran, India and Afghanistan’, South Asia Research, 42(1), pp. 21–39. Available at:
  • Public International Law at the University of Tehran, Aminzadeh, E. and Khodaparast, N. (2019) ‘Legal Approach to Energy Security of Iran: With Special References to Crude Oil and Gas’, Journal of East Asia and International Law, 12(1), pp. 71–90. Available at:
  • S. Mohsen, P. et al. (2021) ‘Potential, Current Status, and Applications of Renewable Energy in Energy Sector of Iran: A Review’, Renewable Energy Research and Application, 2(1). Available at:
  • Solaymani, S. (2021) ‘A Review on Energy and Renewable Energy Policies in Iran’, Sustainability, 13(13), p. 7328. Available at:
  • Verma, S.K. (2007) ‘Energy geopolitics and Iran–Pakistan–India gas pipeline’, Energy Policy, 35(6), pp. 3280–3301. Available at:
  • Wu, F. (2015) ‘China’s Puzzling Energy Diplomacy Toward Iran’, Asian Perspective, 39(1), pp. 47–69. Available at:
  • Zarifian, J. (2008) ‘Christian Armenia, Islamic Iran: Two (Not So) Strange Companions Geopolitical Stakes and Significance of a Special Relation ship’, Iran and the Caucasus, 12(1), pp. 123–151. Available at:

Lecture 5: Middle East – Conflicts & the Major Powers

Core Required Reading

Jägerskog, A., Schulz, M. and Swain, A. (eds) (2019) Routledge handbook on Middle East security. London Taylor & Francis (Routledge handbooks).

  • Perspectives on Middle East Security: An introduction
  • Shifts in the Global Political and Economic Landscape and Consequences for the Middle East and North Africa
  • Conflicts in the Middle East and North Africa: An Attempt at Reframing
  • U.S. Middle East Policy
  • External Intervention in the Gulf
  • The Security Implications of the Israeli–Palestinian Conflict
  • The Future of Iraq’s Security
  • Security and Syria: From “the Security State” to the Source of Multiple Insecurities
  • Peacebuilding in the Middle East

Recommended Reading

  • Agnew, J. (2006) ‘Religion and Geopolitics’, Geopolitics, 11(2), pp. 183–191. Available at:
  • Akbarzadeh, S., Gourlay, W. and Ehteshami, A. (2022) ‘Iranian proxies in the Syrian conflict: Tehran’s “forward-defence” in action’, Journal of Strategic Studies, pp. 1–24. Available at:
  • Anwar, T. (2021) ‘Colonial Aftermaths: Gender, Geopolitics and Hegemony in the Middle-East’, Geopolitics, 26(4), pp. 1267–1271. Available at:
  • Aras, B. and Kardaş, Ş. (2021) ‘Geopolitics of the New Middle East: Perspectives from Inside and Outside’, Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, 23(3), pp. 397–402. Available at:
  • Austvik, O.G. and Rzayeva, G. (2017) ‘Turkey in the geopolitics of energy’, Energy Policy, 107, pp. 539–547. Available at:
  • Bahgat, G. (2008) ‘Energy and the Arab–Israeli Conflict’, Middle Eastern Studies, 44(6), pp. 937–944. Available at:
  • Bilgin, M. (2009) ‘Geopolitics of European natural gas demand: Supplies from Russia, Caspian and the Middle East’, Energy Policy, 37(11), pp. 4482–4492. Available at:
  • Bilgin, P. (2004) ‘Whose “Middle East”? Geopolitical Inventions and Practices of Security’, International Relations, 18(1), pp. 25–41. Available at:
  • Bradshaw, M.J. (2009) ‘The Geopolitics of Global Energy Security: Geopolitics of global energy security’, Geography Compass, 3(5), pp. 1920–1937. Available at:
  • Canal Forgues Alter, E. and Janardhan, N. (2021) ‘The Abraham Accords: Exploring the Scope for Plurilateral Collaboration among Asia’s Strategic Partners’, Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs, 15(1), pp. 41–52. Available at:
  • Clark, J.H. (2017) ‘Feminist geopolitics and the Middle East: Refuge, belief, and peace’, Geography Compass, 11(2), p. e12304. Available at:
  • Colombo, S. and Soler i Lecha, E. (2021) ‘Europe and the “New” Middle East: Geopolitical shifts and strategic choices’, Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, 23(3), pp. 403–422. Available at:
  • Dachtler, P. (2022) ‘From New to Normal: Two Years after the Abraham Accords’, p. 12 pages. Available at:
  • Falk, R. (1991) ‘The Cruelty of Geopolitics: The Fate of Nation and State in the Middle East’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 20(3), pp. 383–393. Available at:
  • Fulton, J. and Yellinek, R. (2021) ‘UAE-Israel diplomatic normalization: a response to a turbulent Middle East region’, Comparative Strategy, 40(5), pp. 499–515. Available at:
  • Guzansky, Y. and Marshall, Z.A. (2020) ‘The Abraham Accords: Immediate Significance and Long-Term Implications’, Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs, 14(3), pp. 379–389. Available at:
  • Hitman, G. and Zwilling, M. (2022) ‘Normalization with Israel: An Analysis of Social Networks Discourse Within Gulf States’, Ethnopolitics, 21(4), pp. 423–449. Available at:
  • Kalicki, J.H. (2007) ‘Rx for “Oil Addiction”: The Middle East And Energy Security’, Middle East Policy, 14(1), pp. 76–83. Available at:
  • Kausch, K. (2015) ‘Competitive Multipolarity in the Middle East’, The International Spectator, 50(3), pp. 1–15. Available at:
  • Liu, W., Sun, X. and Wu, K. (2022) ‘War and the Nation-Building of Arab States in the Middle East’, Open Journal of Social Sciences, 10(07), pp. 206–215. Available at:
  • Luft, G. (2009) ‘Dependence On Middle East Energy And Its Impact On Global Security’, in S. Stec and B. Baraj (eds) Energy and Environmental Challenges to Security. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands (NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security), pp. 197–210. Available at:
  • Mahmood, S. (2012) ‘Religious Freedom, the Minority Question, and Geopolitics in the Middle East’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 54(2), pp. 418–446. Available at:
  • Matsuo, Y., Yanagisawa, A. and Yamashita, Y. (2013) ‘A global energy outlook to 2035 with strategic considerations for Asia and Middle East energy supply and demand interdependencies’, Energy Strategy Reviews, 2(1), pp. 79–91. Available at:
  • Morag, N. (2001) ‘Water, Geopolitics and State Building: The Case of Israel’, Middle Eastern Studies, 37(3), pp. 179–198. Available at:
  • Nematollahi, O. et al. (2016) ‘Energy demands and renewable energy resources in the Middle East’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 54, pp. 1172–1181. Available at:
  • Olson, R. (1992) ‘The Kurdish question in the aftermath of the Gulf War: Geopolitical and geostrategic changes in the Middle East’, Third World Quarterly, 13(3), pp. 475–499. Available at:
  • Rezvani, B. (2020) ‘Russian foreign policy and geopolitics in the Post-Soviet space and the Middle East: Tajikistan, Georgia, Ukraine and Syria’, Middle Eastern Studies, 56(6), pp. 878–899. Available at:
  • Roach, E.L. and Al-Saidi, M. (2021) ‘Rethinking infrastructure rehabilitation: Conflict resilience of urban water and energy supply in the Middle East and South Sudan’, Energy Research & Social Science, 76, p. 102052. Available at:
  • Salloukh, B.F. (2013) ‘The Arab Uprisings and the Geopolitics of the Middle East’, The International Spectator, 48(2), pp. 32–46. Available at:
  • Segell, G. (2021) ‘The Abraham Accords: From Extremist Politics to Diplomacy’, in H. Solomon (ed.) Directions in International Terrorism. Singapore: Springer Singapore, pp. 243–266. Available at:
  • Sevilla, H.A. (2020) ‘Middle East Geopolitics and China-India Strategic Interaction in the New Era’, Asian Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, 14(2), pp. 179–193. Available at:
  • Sidaway, J.D. (1994) ‘Geopolitics, Geography, and “Terrorism” in the Middle East’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 12(3), pp. 357–372. Available at:
  • Singer, J. (2021) ‘The Abraham Accords: Normalization Agreements Signed by Israel with the U.A.E., Bahrain, Sudan, and Morocco’, International Legal Materials, 60(3), pp. 448–463. Available at:
  • Yeşiltaş, M. and Kardaş, T. (2018) ‘Introduction: The Phenomenon of Non-state Armed Actors and Patterns of Violent Geopolitics in the Middle East’, in M. Yeşiltaş and T. Kardaş (eds) Non-State Armed Actors in the Middle East. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 3–20. Available at:

Lecture 6: South Asia and ASEAN

Core Required Reading

  1. Asif, M. (ed.) (2021) Energy and Environmental Security in Developing Countries. Cham: Springer International Publishing (Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications). Available at:
  • Introduction
  • Energy and Environmental Security in Developing Countries Case Studies of Countries in Southeast Asia
  • Energy Security: A Case Study of Indonesia
  • Energy and Environmental Scenario of South Asia
  • Energy and Environmental Scenario of India
  • Energy and Environmental Security Nexus in Pakistan
  • Energy and Sustainable Development from Perspective of Energy Poverty
  1. Rozman, G. and Liow, J.C. (eds) (2018) International Relations and Asia’s Southern Tier: ASEAN, Australia, and India. Singapore: Springer Singapore. Available at:
  • Southeast Asia’s Developing Divide
  • Doomed by Dialogue: Will ASEAN Survive Great Power Rivalry in Asia?
  • Can Indonesia Fulfill Its Aspirations to Regional Leadership?
  • Vietnam among the Powers: Struggle and Cooperation

Recommended Reading

  • Abdullah, F.B. et al. (2021) ‘Energy security index of Pakistan (ESIOP)’, Energy Strategy Reviews, 38, p. 100710. Available at:
  • Amin, S.B. et al. (2022) ‘Energy security and sustainable energy policy in Bangladesh: From the lens of 4As framework’, Energy Policy, 161, p. 112719. Available at:
  • Andreev, O., Lomakina, O. and Aleksandrova, A. (2021) ‘Diversification of structural and crisis risks in the energy sector of the ASEAN member countries’, Energy Strategy Reviews, 35, p. 100655. Available at:
  • Aryal, S.K. (2022) ‘India’s “Neighbourhood First” policy and the Belt & Road Initiative (BRI)’, Asian Journal of Comparative Politics, 7(4), pp. 744–756. Available at:
  • Bashir, S. (2022) ‘The China–India–Pakistan Nuclear Triangle: Consequential Choices for Asian Security’, Journal for Peace and Nuclear Disarmament, pp. 1–14. Available at:
  • Beeson, M. and Hewitt, J. (2022) ‘Does Multilateralism still Matter? ASEAN and the Arctic Council in Comparative Perspective’, Global Policy, 13(2), pp. 208–218. Available at:
  • Bhat, T.R. (2022) ‘Book review: Shivshankar Menon, India and Asian Geopolitics: The Past, Present’, South Asia Research, 42(1), pp. 135–138. Available at:
  • Bhatnagar, S. and Shahab Ahmed, Z. (2021) ‘Geopolitics of landlocked states in South Asia: a comparative analysis of Afghanistan and Nepal’, Australian Journal of International Affairs, 75(1), pp. 60–79. Available at:
  • Bitas, B.C. (2021) ‘The Quad in Relation to China and ASEAN: Geopolitical Irritant, Stabilizing Shock Absorber, or Springboard to the Future?’, China and the World, 04(03), p. 2150015. Available at:
  • Cosar, K. and Thomas, B. (2021) ‘The geopolitics of international trade in Southeast Asia’, Review of World Economics, 157(1), pp. 207–219. Available at:
  • Fernando, J.L. (2014) ‘Negotiated peace versus victor’s peace: the geopolitics of peace and conflict in Sri Lanka’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 27(2), pp. 206–225. Available at:
  • Gumilar, R., Widodo, P. and Ayu Elita Hafizah, M. (2022) ‘Asean Modern Leadership Styles: A Critical Analysis’, Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Sains, 3(2), pp. 314–321. Available at:
  • Hassan, M. et al. (2021) ‘Energy and Environmental Security Nexus in Pakistan’, in M. Asif (ed.) Energy and Environmental Security in Developing Countries. Cham: Springer International Publishing (Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications), pp. 147–172. Available at:
  • Hirsch, P. (2016) ‘The shifting regional geopolitics of Mekong dams’, Political Geography, 51, pp. 63–74. Available at:
  • Kanwal, S. et al. (2022) ‘An integrated future approach for the energy security of Pakistan: Replacement of fossil fuels with syngas for better environment and socio-economic development’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 156, p. 111978. Available at:
  • Karim, M.A. (2021) ‘Ethnicity and Geopolitics of Rohingya Crisis’, in S. Ratuva, H.A. Hassan, and R. Compel (eds) Risks, Identity and Conflict. Singapore: Springer Singapore, pp. 109–130. Available at:
  • Karim, M.F. and Nabila, R. (2022) ‘Role Conception of the Asia-Pacific Middle Powers: Comparative Analysis of Indonesia, South Korea, Australia and Vietnam’, Journal of Asian Security and International Affairs, 9(2), pp. 231–254. Available at:
  • Kumar, R. (2020) ‘India & South Asia: Geopolitics, regional trade and economic growth spillovers’, The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, 29(1), pp. 69–88. Available at:
  • Lee, Y. (2021) ‘Introduction to “Right-Wing Activism in Asia: Cold War Legacies, Geopolitics, and Democratic Erosion”’, Politics & Society, 49(3), pp. 303–310. Available at:
  • Li, W. et al. (2021) ‘Vertical financial disparity, energy prices and emission reduction: Empirical insights from Pakistan’, Journal of Environmental Management, 294, p. 112946. Available at:
  • Lidarev, I. and Pant, H.V. (2022) ‘India and maritime governance in the Indian ocean: the impact of geopolitics on India’s involvement in maritime governance’, Contemporary South Asia, 30(2), pp. 269–286. Available at:
  • Lu, B. et al. (2021) ‘Low-cost, low-emission 100% renewable electricity in Southeast Asia supported by pumped hydro storage’, Energy, 236, p. 121387. Available at:
  • Menon, P. (2022) ‘The China–India–Pakistan Nuclear Trilemma and Accidental War’, Journal for Peace and Nuclear Disarmament, pp. 1–19. Available at:
  • Overland, I. et al. (2021) ‘The ASEAN climate and energy paradox’, Energy and Climate Change, 2, p. 100019. Available at:
  • Pankaew, A. and Kaewkhunok, S. (2022) ‘The new equation of South Asia region: The rising role of China in Nepal’s foreign policy’, International Area Studies Review, 25(2), pp. 121–137. Available at:
  • Qudrat-Ullah, H. (2022) ‘A review and analysis of renewable energy policies and CO2 emissions of Pakistan’, Energy, 238, p. 121849. Available at:
  • Rahman, Z.U. et al. (2021) ‘The geopolitics of the CPEC and Indian Ocean: security implication for India’, Australian Journal of Maritime & Ocean Affairs, 13(2), pp. 122–145. Available at:
  • Raza, M.A. et al. (2022) ‘Energy demand and production forecasting in Pakistan’, Energy Strategy Reviews, 39, p. 100788. Available at:
  • Scott, D. (2013) ‘India’s Role in the South China Sea: Geopolitics and Geoeconomics in Play’, India Review, 12(2), pp. 51–69. Available at:
  • Shadman, S. et al. (2021) ‘Methodological Review of Malaysia’s Energy Security Measurement: A Systems Approach using Stakeholder Engagement’, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 1092(1), p. 012032. Available at:
  • Shurmer-Smith, P. (2002) ‘The geopolitics of South Asia: from early empires to India, Pakistan and Bangladesh’, Political Geography, 21(6), pp. 847–849. Available at:
  • Thuong, N.L.T. and Oanh, N.T. (2021) ‘Vietnam in the Indo-Pacific Region: Perception, Position and Perspectives’, India Quarterly: A Journal of International Affairs, 77(2), pp. 129–142. Available at:
  • Vakulchuk, R., Overland, I. and Suryadi, B. (2022) ‘ASEAN’s energy transition: how to attract more investment in renewable energy’, Energy, Ecology and Environment [Preprint]. Available at:
  • Zuan, H., Ellis, D. and Pagliari, R. (2021) ‘Geopolitics and the ASEAN single aviation market: Aspirations versus realities’, Transportation Research Procedia, 59, pp. 95–104. Available at:

Lecture 7: Central Asia

Core Required Reading

  1. Patnaik, A. (2019) Central Asia: geopolitics, security and stability. First issued in paperback. Abingdon: Routledge.
  • Security concerns of Central Asian States
  • Energy Geopolitics in the Central Asia-Caspian region
  • Russia in Central Asia: The Geopolitical Balancer
  • Central Asian States and regional powers: China, Iran, Turkey and India
  • Regional stability: Challenges and Prospects
  1. Petersen, A. (2017) Eurasia’s shifting geopolitical tectonic plates: global perspective, local theaters. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books (Contemporary Central Asia : societes, oolitics, and cultures).
  • The Nabucco Pipeline Project Is Dead
  • Integrating Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Turkey with the West: The Case of the East–West Transport Corridor
  • Azerbaijan and Georgia: Playing Russian Roulette with Moscow (with Taleh Ziyadov)
  • Central Asia’s New Energy Giant: China
  • Central Asia’s Most Important City Is … Not in Central Asia

Recommended Reading

  • Barton, B. (2021) ‘The Belt-and-Road Initiative as a paradigm change for European Union-China security cooperation? The case of Central Asia’, Asia Europe Journal, 19(3), pp. 391–409. Available at:
  • Bohr, A. (2004) ‘Regionalism in Central Asia: New Geopolitics, Old Regional Order’, International Affairs, 80(3), pp. 485–502. Available at:
  • Boute, A. (2019) Energy Security along the New Silk Road: Energy Law and Geopolitics in Central Asia. 1st edn. Cambridge University Press. Available at:
  • Fawn, R. (2002) ‘Russia’s reluctant retreat from the Caucasus: Abkhazia, Georgia and the US after 11 September 2001’, European Security, 11(4), pp. 131–150. Available at:
  • Fawn, R. (2021) ‘“Not here for geopolitical interests or games”: the EU’s 2019 strategy and the regional and inter-regional competition for Central Asia’, Central Asian Survey, pp. 1–24. Available at:
  • Fawn, R. and Cummings, S.N. (2001) ‘Interests over norms in western policy towards the Caucasus: How Abkhazia is no one’s Kosovo’, European Security, 10(3), pp. 84–108. Available at:
  • Fumagalli, M. (2007) ‘Alignments and Realignments in Central Asia: The Rationale and Implications of Uzbekistan’s Rapprochement with Russia’, International Political Science Review, 28(3), pp. 253–271. Available at:
  • Hauner, M. (1989) ‘Central Asian geopolitics in the last hundred years: A critical survey from Gorchakov to Gorbachev’, Central Asian Survey, 8(1), pp. 1–19. Available at:
  • Heathershaw, J. and Megoran, N. (2011) ‘Contesting danger: a new agenda for policy and scholarship on Central Asia’, International Affairs, 87(3), pp. 589–612. Available at:
  • Högselius, P. (2022) ‘The hidden integration of Central Asia: the making of a region through technical infrastructures’, Central Asian Survey, 41(2), pp. 223–243. Available at:
  • Indeo, F. (2018) ‘The Impact of the Belt and Road Initiative on Central Asia: Building New Relations in a Reshaped Geopolitical Scenario’, in W. Zhang, I. Alon, and C. Lattemann (eds) China’s Belt and Road Initiative. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 135–153. Available at:
  • Joshi, N. and Kumari, K. (2019) ‘Understanding Central Asia’s Security and Economic Interests’, India Quarterly: A Journal of International Affairs, 75(1), pp. 29–42. Available at:
  • Kuus, M. (2013) Geopolitics and Expertise: Knowledge and Authority in European Diplomacy. 1st edn. Wiley. Available at:
  • Labban, M. (2009) ‘The Struggle for the Heartland: Hybrid Geopolitics in the Transcaspian’, Geopolitics, 14(1), pp. 1–25. Available at:
  • Locatelli, C. (2010) ‘Russian and Caspian Hydrocarbons: Energy Supply Stakes for the European Union’, Europe-Asia Studies, 62(6), pp. 959–971. Available at:
  • Mohapatra, N.K. (2015) ‘Geopolitics of Energy Security in Central Asia: Implications for India’, in G. Pant (ed.) India’s Emerging Energy Relations. New Delhi: Springer India (India Studies in Business and Economics), pp. 103–124. Available at:
  • Nourzhanov, K. (2009) ‘Changing security threat perceptions in Central Asia’, Australian Journal of International Affairs, 63(1), pp. 85–104. Available at:
  • Papava, V. (2013) ‘The Eurasianism of Russian Anti-Westernism and the Concept of “Central Caucaso-Asia”’, Russian Politics & Law, 51(6), pp. 45–86. Available at:
  • Pradhan, R. (2019) ‘Petropolitics and Pipeline Diplomacy in Central Asia: Can India Afford to Wait in the Wings?’, India Quarterly: A Journal of International Affairs, 75(4), pp. 472–489. Available at:
  • Pradhan, R. (2022) ‘Energy Geopolitics and the New Great Game in Central Asia’, Millennial Asia, 13(2), pp. 265–288. Available at:
  • Scott, D. (2008) ‘The Great Power “Great Game” between India and China: “The Logic of Geography”’, Geopolitics, 13(1), pp. 1–26. Available at:
  • Sharshenova, A. (2014) ‘Globalizing Central Asia. Geopolitics and the Challenges of Economic Development’, Europe-Asia Studies, 66(7), pp. 1201–1202. Available at:
  • Shlapentokh, D. (2007) ‘Dugin, Eurasianism, and Central Asia’, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 40(2), pp. 143–156. Available at:
  • Shlapentokh, V. (1995) ‘Russia, China, and the Far East: Old geopolitics or a new peaceful cooperation?’, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 28(3), pp. 307–318. Available at:
  • Tolipov, F. (2001) ‘Nationalism as a geopolitical phenomenon: The Central Asian case’, Central Asian Survey, 20(2), pp. 183–194. Available at:
  • Tolipov, F. (2011) ‘Micro-Geopolitics of Central Asia: A Uzbekistan Perspective’, Strategic Analysis, 35(4), pp. 629–639. Available at:
  • Wastnidge, E., Saxena, S. and Allison, R. (2017) ‘Central Asia in the Iranian geopolitical imagination’, Cambridge Journal of Eurasian Studies, 1, pp. 1–13. Available at:
  • Weber, Y. (2021) ‘Varieties of hierarchy and Central Asian resilience1’, in Bossuyt, F. and Dessein, B., The European Union, China and Central Asia. 1st edn. London: Routledge, pp. 121–141. Available at:
  • Zabortseva, Y.N. (2012) ‘From the “Forgotten Region” to the “Great Game” Region: On the Development of Geopolitics in Central Asia’, Journal of Eurasian Studies, 3(2), pp. 168–176. Available at:
  • Zhou, Q., He, Z. and Yang, Y. (2020) ‘Energy geopolitics in Central Asia: China’s involvement and responses’, Journal of Geographical Sciences, 30(11), pp. 1871–1895. Available at:

Lecture 8: Northeast Asia – Japan, South Korea, North Korea

Core Required Reading

  1. Vivoda, V. (2014) Energy security in Japan: challenges after Fukushima. Farnham, Surrey, England ; Burlington, VT: Ashgate (Transforming environmental politics and policy).
  • The Evolution of Energy Security and Energy Policy in Japan
  • Oil
  • Natural Gas
  • Nuclear Energy
  1. YOO, T.J. (2022) KOREAS: the birth of two nations divided. S.l.: UNIV OF CALIFORNIA PRESS.
  • Out of the Ashes of War: The 1950s
  • The Long 1980s
  • Kim-chic or the Axis of Evil? Korea and the World
  • Korea in the World

Recommended Reading

  • Bakshi, P. (2021) ‘A new leadership amidst Japan’s ongoing energy transition’, Australian Journal of International Affairs, 75(3), pp. 237–242. Available at:
  • Bobrow, D.B. and Kudrle, R.T. (1987) ‘How Middle Powers Can Manage Resource Weakness: Japan and Energy’, World Politics, 39(4), pp. 536–565. Available at:
  • Chen, Y. (2017) ‘The Emerging U.S.-Japan Energy Alliance and Its Implications for China’, China Quarterly of International Strategic Studies, 03(01), pp. 121–136. Available at:
  • Choudhury, S.R. (2018) ‘Japan and the Middle East: An Overview’, Contemporary Review of the Middle East, 5(3), pp. 181–198. Available at:
  • Draudt, D. (2022) ‘North Korea and the Geopolitics of Development. By Kevin Gray and Jong-Woon Lee. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2021. 350p. $110.00 cloth. – Guns, Guerillas, and the Great Leader: North Korea and the Third World. By Benjamin R. Young. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2021. 232p. $90.00 cloth, $28.00 paper.’, Perspectives on Politics, 20(3), pp. 1143–1145. Available at:
  • Fallon, K.S. (2006) ‘Promoting an Energy Partnership in Northeast Asia’, Pacific Focus, 21(1), pp. 175–200. Available at:
  • Feldhoff, T. (2014) ‘Post-Fukushima energy paths: Japan and Germany compared’, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 70(6), pp. 87–96. Available at:
  • Fraser, T. (2020) ‘Japan’s resilient, renewable cities: how socioeconomics and local policy drive Japan’s renewable energy transition’, Environmental Politics, 29(3), pp. 500–523. Available at:
  • Fukushima, Y. (1997) ‘Japanese geopolitics and its background’, Political Geography, 16(5), pp. 407–421. Available at:
  • Harris, S. (1983) ‘After the second oil crisis: energy policies in Europe, America and Japan’, International Affairs, 59(3), pp. 502–503. Available at:
  • Jang, H. and Thomas, K.A. (2022) ‘The geopolitics of whaling and Japanese colonialism in Korea’, Territory, Politics, Governance, pp. 1–22. Available at:
  • Kilpeläinen, S. (2016) ‘Book Review: Vlado Vivoda, Energy Security in Japan: Challenges after Fukushima’, Political Studies Review, 14(2), pp. 310–311. Available at:
  • Kim, S.H., Jia, J. and Whitty, M. (2011) ‘The Northeast Asian Energy Situation and the North Korean Factor’, North Korean Review, 7(1), pp. 78–86. Available at:
  • Kingston, J. (2013) ‘Nuclear Power Politics in Japan, 2011-2013’, Asian Perspective, 37(4), pp. 501–521. Available at:
  • Krieckhaus, J. (2017) ‘Geopolitics and South Korea’s Economic Success’, Asian Perspective, 41(1), pp. 43–69. Available at:
  • Lee, H.M. and Park, J.-W. (2021) ‘A Social Dilemma of the Nuclear Energy Issue in South Korea: How Social Value Orientation and Trust in Nuclear Energy Control Affect Individuals’ Behavioral Intentions’, Korea Observer – Institute of Korean Studies, 52(2), pp. 285–311. Available at:
  • Liao, X. (2007) ‘The petroleum factor in Sino–Japanese relations: beyond energy cooperation’, International Relations of the Asia-Pacific, 7(1), pp. 23–46. Available at:
  • Linantud, J.L. (2008) ‘Pressure and Protection: Cold War Geopolitics and Nation-Building in South Korea, South Vietnam, Philippines, and Thailand’, Geopolitics, 13(4), pp. 635–656. Available at:
  • Miyagi, Y. (2012) ‘Japan’s Middle East policy: “still mercantile realism”’, International Relations of the Asia-Pacific, 12(2), pp. 287–315. Available at:
  • Nam, A., Weible, C.M. and Park, K. (2022) ‘Polarization and frames of advocacy coalitions in South Korea’s nuclear energy policy’, Review of Policy Research, 39(4), pp. 387–410. Available at:
  • Nam, C. (2017) ‘Can South Korea Embrace Japan’s Expanding Security Role? Sources and the Manifestation of the Conflicting Identities: Korea and Japan’s Expanding Security Role’, Pacific Focus, 32(3), pp. 396–415. Available at:
  • Nasu, H. and Faunce, T. (2013) ‘Nanotechnology in Japan: A route to energy security after Fukushima?’, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 69(5), pp. 68–74. Available at:
  • Nishiyama, H. (2019) ‘Geopolitics of disregard: Living a colonial life in Okinawa’, Political Geography, 74, p. 102042. Available at:
  • Ohta, H. (2021) ‘Japan’s Policy on Net Carbon Neutrality by 2050’, East Asian Policy, 13(01), pp. 19–32. Available at:
  • Phillips, A. (2013) ‘A dangerous synergy: energy securitization, great power rivalry and strategic stability in the Asian century’, The Pacific Review, 26(1), pp. 17–38. Available at:
  • Rudiany, N.P. et al. (2021) ‘The Role of Cities in Energy Diplomacy: Indonesia, Japan and the Surabaya-Kitakyushu Partnership’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 17(1), pp. 64–90. Available at:
  • Sakai, H. (2019) ‘Return to Geopolitics: The Changes in Japanese Strategic Narratives’, Asian Perspective, 43(2), pp. 297–322. Available at:
  • Scott, D. (2016) ‘NATO and Japan: A strategic convergence? Post cold-war geopolitics: Russia, China, anti-piracy and anti-terrorism’, International Politics, 53(3), pp. 324–342. Available at:
  • Scott, D. (2019) ‘The Geoeconomics and Geopolitics of Japan’s “Indo-Pacific” Strategy’, Journal of Asian Security and International Affairs, 6(2), pp. 136–161. Available at:
  • Shadrina, E. and Bradshaw, M. (2013) ‘Russia’s energy governance transitions and implications for enhanced cooperation with China, Japan, and South Korea’, Post-Soviet Affairs, 29(6), pp. 461–499. Available at:
  • Shim, D. (2016) ‘Between the International and the Everyday: Geopolitics and Imaginaries of Home’, International Studies Review, p. viw025. Available at:
  • Suzuki, T. (2015) ‘Nuclear Energy Policy Issues in Japan After the Fukushima Nuclear Accident’, Asian Perspective, 39(4), pp. 591–605. Available at:
  • Wan, W. (2017) ‘Beyond the Alliance: The Regional Value of U.S.-Japan Nuclear Cooperation: U.S.-Japan Nuclear Cooperation’, Asian Politics & Policy, 9(1), pp. 66–81. Available at:
  • Wang, L. (2022) ‘China–Japan Competition in Infrastructure Investment in Southeast Asia: A Two-Level Analysis’, Chinese Political Science Review [Preprint]. Available at:
  • Watanabe, A. (2018) ‘Greater East Asia Geopolitics and its geopolitical imagination of a borderless world: A neglected tradition?’, Political Geography, 67, pp. 23–31. Available at:
  • Wishnick, E. (2009) ‘Competition and cooperative practices in Sino-Japanese energy and environmental relations: towards an energy security “risk community”?’, The Pacific Review, 22(4), pp. 401–428. Available at:
  • Wong, K. and Law, K. (2021) ‘South Korea–Russia Rapprochement: Bringing Geo-economy Back on the Agenda?’, East Asian Policy, 13(03), pp. 117–131. Available at:
  • Yamada, M. (2016) ‘Junichirō Shiratori , “Keizai Taikoku” Nihon no Gaikō: Enerugī Shigen Gaikō no Keisei, 1967–1974 nen [The Energy Resource Diplomacy of a Rising Japan, 1967–1974], Chikura Shobō, 2015, 410 pp.’, Japanese Journal of Political Science, 17(3), pp. 523–525. Available at:
  • Yilmaz (Shifan Yao), S. and Mengdi, L. (2020) ‘Northeast Asian Regional Integration and the East Asian Community Making Process’, Asian Perspective, 44(3), pp. 409–433. Available at:
  • Yoshimatsu, H. (2017) ‘Japan’s export of infrastructure systems: pursuing twin goals through developmental means’, The Pacific Review, 30(4), pp. 494–512. Available at:

Lecture 9: Northeast Asia – China

Core Required Reading

Leandro, F.J.B.S. and Duarte, P.A.B. (eds) (2020) The Belt and Road Initiative: An Old Archetype of a New Development Model. Singapore: Springer Singapore. Available at:

  • The New Silk Roads: Defining China’s Grand Strategy
  • The Words of the Belt and Road Initiative: A Chinese Discourse for the World?
  • Global Strike vs. Globalization: The US-China Rivalry and the BRI
  • The Belt and Road Initiative: A New Platform in EU-China Cooperation?
  • Facing China in Eurasia: The Russian Perspective

Recommended Reading

  • Alden, C. (2005) ‘China in Africa’, Survival, 47(3), pp. 147–164. Available at:
  • An, N. and Zhu, H. (2018) ‘Conceptual and theoretical debates in modern geopolitics and their implications for Chinese geopolitics’, Area Development and Policy, 3(3), pp. 368–382. Available at:
  • An, N., Sharp, J. and Shaw, I. (2021) ‘Towards a Confucian geopolitics’, Dialogues in Human Geography, 11(2), pp. 218–235. Available at:
  • Ba, A.D. (2019) ‘China’s “Belt and Road” in Southeast Asia: Constructing the Strategic Narrative in Singapore’, Asian Perspective, 43(2), pp. 249–272. Available at:
  • Blanchard, J.-M.F. and Flint, C. (2017) ‘The Geopolitics of China’s Maritime Silk Road Initiative’, Geopolitics, 22(2), pp. 223–245. Available at:
  • Downs, E.S. (2004) ‘The Chinese Energy Security Debate’, The China Quarterly, 177, pp. 21–41. Available at:
  • Du, D. et al. (2016) ‘Twenty-five years of progress in geopolitics research: Efforts from China’s geographers’, Journal of Geographical Sciences, 26(8), pp. 1223–1242. Available at:
  • Ehteshami, A. (2018) ‘Gold at the end of the Rainbow? The BRI and the Middle East’, Global Policy, 9(3), pp. 387–397. Available at:
  • Evron, Y. (2018) ‘Implications of China’s Belt and Road Initiative for Japan’s Involvement in the Middle East’, Contemporary Review of the Middle East, 5(3), pp. 199–214. Available at:
  • Fishman, B. (2011) ‘Al-Qaeda and the Rise of China: Jihadi Geopolitics in a Post-Hegemonic World’, The Washington Quarterly, 34(3), pp. 47–62. Available at:
  • Freeman, D. (2018) ‘China and Renewables: The Priority of Economics over Geopolitics’, in D. Scholten (ed.) The Geopolitics of Renewables. Cham: Springer International Publishing (Lecture Notes in Energy), pp. 187–201. Available at:
  • Gökgöz, F. and Güvercin, M.T. (2018) ‘Energy security and renewable energy efficiency in EU’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 96, pp. 226–239. Available at:
  • Gong, X. (2019) ‘The Belt & Road Initiative and China’s influence in Southeast Asia’, The Pacific Review, 32(4), pp. 635–665. Available at:
  • Gong, X. (2020) ‘Non-traditional security cooperation between China and south-east Asia: implications for Indo-Pacific geopolitics’, International Affairs, 96(1), pp. 29–48. Available at:
  • Gurjar, S. (2019) ‘Geopolitics of Western Indian Ocean: Unravelling China’s Multi-dimensional Presence’, Strategic Analysis, 43(5), pp. 385–401. Available at:
  • He, K. and Li, M. (2020) ‘Understanding the dynamics of the Indo-Pacific: US–China strategic competition, regional actors, and beyond’, International Affairs, 96(1), pp. 1–7. Available at:
  • Huang, Y. and Suliman, S. (2020) ‘Geopolitics, (Re)territorialisation, and China’s Patriotic Tourism in the South China Sea’, Geopolitics, pp. 1–24. Available at:
  • Jiang, Y. (2021) ‘Demystifying the Belt and Road Initiative: China’s domestic and non-strategic policy?’, Asian Journal of Comparative Politics, 6(4), pp. 468–481. Available at:
  • Lee, C.-C. and Wang, C. (2022) ‘Financial development, technological innovation and energy security: Evidence from Chinese provincial experience’, Energy Economics, 112, p. 106161. Available at:
  • Liu, L. and Song, T. (2021) ‘The Determinants of States’ Interactions with China in the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI): Spatial Gravity Interaction’, Pacific Focus, 36(3), pp. 460–487. Available at:
  • Liu, W. (2021) ‘Confucian geopolitics or Chinese geopolitics?’, Dialogues in Human Geography, 11(2), pp. 265–269. Available at:
  • Mohan, G. and Tan-Mullins, M. (2019) ‘The geopolitics of South–South infrastructure development: Chinese-financed energy projects in the global South’, Urban Studies, 56(7), pp. 1368–1385. Available at:
  • Montgomery, E.B. (2013) ‘Competitive Strategies against Continental Powers: The Geopolitics of Sino-Indian-American Relations’, Journal of Strategic Studies, 36(1), pp. 76–100. Available at:
  • Petry, J. (2022) ‘Beyond ports, roads and railways: Chinese economic statecraft, the Belt and Road Initiative and the politics of financial infrastructures’, European Journal of International Relations, p. 135406612211266. Available at:
  • Power, M. and Mohan, G. (2010) ‘Towards a Critical Geopolitics of China’s Engagement with African Development’, Geopolitics, 15(3), pp. 462–495. Available at:
  • Shenkar, O. (2006) ‘China’s Economic Rise and the New Geopolitics’, International Journal, 61(2), p. 313. Available at:
  • Song, Y., Zhang, M. and Sun, R. (2019) ‘Using a new aggregated indicator to evaluate China’s energy security’, Energy Policy, 132, pp. 167–174. Available at:
  • Sum, N.-L. (2019) ‘The intertwined geopolitics and geoeconomics of hopes/fears: China’s triple economic bubbles and the “One Belt One Road” imaginary’, Territory, Politics, Governance, 7(4), pp. 528–552. Available at:
  • Wang, B. et al. (2018) ‘Role of renewable energy in China’s energy security and climate change mitigation: An index decomposition analysis’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 90, pp. 187–194. Available at:
  • Wang, K.-H., Su, C.-W. and Umar, M. (2021) ‘Geopolitical risk and crude oil security: A Chinese perspective’, Energy, 219, p. 119555. Available at:
  • Zhang, S. and Chen, W. (2022) ‘China’s Energy Transition Pathway in a Carbon Neutral Vision’, Engineering, 14, pp. 64–76. Available at:
  • Zhongying, W. and Sandholt, K. (2019) ‘Thoughts on China’s energy transition outlook’, Energy Transitions, 3(1–2), pp. 59–72. Available at:

Lecture 10: Northeast Asia – Russia and Mongolia

Core Required Reading

Petersen, A. (2017) Eurasia’s shifting geopolitical tectonic plates: global perspective, local theaters. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books (Contemporary Central Asia : societes, oolitics, and cultures).

  • Russia’s Energy Bully Takes a Fall
  • The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pipeline
  • Russia’s Eastern Anxieties (with Raffaello Pantucci)
  • The 1992–93 Georgia-Abkhazia War: A Forgotten Conflict
  • Russia Invaded Georgia to Teach the West a Lesson
  • Russia’s Resurgence: Risks and Rewards
  • Security and Western Integration in the Caucasus
  • Black Sea Security: The NATO Imperative

Recommended Reading

  • Abdelal, R. (2013) ‘The profits of power: Commerce and realpolitik in Eurasia’, Review of International Political Economy, 20(3), pp. 421–456. Available at:
  • Ahn, S.H. (2022) ‘Framing Energy Security Between Russia and South Korea?’, in Ahn, S. H., Power Struggles. Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore, pp. 7–31. Available at:
  • Berryman, J. (2012) ‘Geopolitics and Russian foreign policy’, International Politics, 49(4), pp. 530–544. Available at:
  • Bradsher, H.S. (1972) ‘The Sovietization of Mongolia’, Foreign Affairs, 50(3), p. 545. Available at:
  • Braghiroli, S. and Makarychev, A. (2018) ‘Redefining Europe: Russia and the 2015 Refugee Crisis’, Geopolitics, 23(4), pp. 823–848. Available at:
  • Browning, C.S. (2018) ‘Geostrategies, geopolitics and ontological security in the Eastern neighbourhood: The European Union and the “new Cold War”’, Political Geography, 62, pp. 106–115. Available at:
  • Clem, R.S. (2003) ‘The End of Eurasia: Russia on the Border Between Geopolitics and Globalization’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 93(3), pp. 761–762. Available at:
  • Diesen, G. (2019) ‘The Geoeconomics of Russia’s Greater Eurasia Initiative’, Asian Politics & Policy, 11(4), pp. 566–585. Available at:
  • Dodds, K. (2010) ‘Flag planting and finger pointing: The Law of the Sea, the Arctic and the political geographies of the outer continental shelf’, Political Geography, 29(2), pp. 63–73. Available at:
  • Erickson, J. (1999) ‘“Russia will not be trifled with”: Geopolitical facts and fantasies’, Journal of Strategic Studies, 22(2–3), pp. 242–268. Available at:
  • Foxall, A. (2013) ‘Photographing Vladimir Putin: Masculinity, Nationalism and Visuality in Russian Political Culture’, Geopolitics, 18(1), pp. 132–156. Available at:
  • Gurjar, S. (2022) ‘Russia Returns to the Indian Ocean: Exploring the Expanding Strategic Presence’, India Quarterly: A Journal of International Affairs, 78(3), pp. 413–430. Available at:
  • İpek, P. (2007) ‘The role of oil and gas in Kazakhstan’s foreign policy: Looking east or west?’, Europe-Asia Studies, 59(7), pp. 1179–1199. Available at:
  • Johnson, C. and Derrick, M. (2012) ‘A Splintered Heartland: Russia, Europe, and the Geopolitics of Networked Energy Infrastructure’, Geopolitics, 17(3), pp. 482–501. Available at:
  • Karatayev, M. and Hall, S. (2020) ‘Establishing and comparing energy security trends in resource-rich exporting nations (Russia and the Caspian Sea region)’, Resources Policy, 68, p. 101746. Available at:
  • Kerr, D. (1995) ‘The new Eurasianism: The rise of geopolitics in Russia’s foreign policy’, Europe-Asia Studies, 47(6), pp. 977–988. Available at:
  • Krickovic, A. (2014) ‘Imperial nostalgia or prudent geopolitics? Russia’s efforts to reintegrate the post-Soviet space in geopolitical perspective’, Post-Soviet Affairs, 30(6), pp. 503–528. Available at:
  • Libman, A. and Obydenkova, A.V. (2018) ‘Regional international organizations as a strategy of autocracy: the Eurasian Economic Union and Russian foreign policy’, International Affairs, 94(5), pp. 1037–1058. Available at:
  • Makarychev, A. and Yatsyk, A. (2017) ‘Biopower and geopolitics as Russia’s neighborhood strategies: reconnecting people or reaggregating lands?’, Nationalities Papers, 45(1), pp. 25–40. Available at:
  • Mäkinen, S. (2014) ‘Geopolitics Teaching and Worldviews: Making the Future Generation in Russia’, Geopolitics, 19(1), pp. 86–108. Available at:
  • Mäkinen, S. (2016) ‘Professional Geopolitics as an Ideal: Roles of Geopolitics in Russia’, International Studies Perspectives, p. ekw003. Available at:
  • Malyarenko, T. and Wolff, S. (2018) ‘The logic of competitive influence-seeking: Russia, Ukraine, and the conflict in Donbas’, Post-Soviet Affairs, 34(4), pp. 191–212. Available at:
  • Morozova, N. (2009) ‘Geopolitics, Eurasianism and Russian Foreign Policy Under Putin’, Geopolitics, 14(4), pp. 667–686. Available at:
  • Neumann, I.B. (2016) ‘Russia’s Europe, 1991-2016: inferiority to superiority’, International Affairs, 92(6), pp. 1381–1399. Available at:
  • Nitoiu, C. and Pasatoiu, F. (2020) ‘Hybrid geopolitics in EU-Russia relations: understanding the persistence of conflict and cooperation’, East European Politics, 36(4), pp. 499–514. Available at:
  • Omelicheva, M.Y. (2016) ‘Critical geopolitics on Russian foreign policy: Uncovering the imagery of Moscow’s international relations’, International Politics, 53(6), pp. 708–726. Available at:
  • Pototskaya, T.I. and Silnichaya, A.V. (2019) ‘Modern geopolitical research in Russia’, Baltic Region, 11(2), pp. 112–135. Available at:
  • Raik, K. (2016) ‘Liberalism and geopolitics in EU–Russia relations: rereading the “Baltic factor”’, European Security, 25(2), pp. 237–255. Available at:
  • Rangsimaporn, P. (2006) ‘Interpretations of Eurasianism: Justifying Russia’s role in East Asia’, Europe-Asia Studies, 58(3), pp. 371–389. Available at:
  • Roberts, K. (2017) ‘Understanding Putin: The politics of identity and geopolitics in Russian foreign policy discourse’, International Journal: Canada’s Journal of Global Policy Analysis, 72(1), pp. 28–55. Available at:
  • Rudolf, P. (2021) ‘U.S. Geopolitics and Nuclear Deterrence in the Era of Great Power Competitions’, Political Science Quarterly, 136(1), pp. 129–153. Available at:
  • Skalamera, M. (2018) ‘Understanding Russia’s energy turn to China: domestic narratives and national identity priorities’, Post-Soviet Affairs, 34(1), pp. 55–77. Available at:
  • Solovyev, E.G. (2004) ‘Geopolitics in Russia—science or vocation?’, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 37(1), pp. 85–96. Available at:
  • Stulberg, A.N. (2015) ‘Out of Gas?: Russia, Ukraine, Europe, and the Changing Geopolitics of Natural Gas’, Problems of Post-Communism, 62(2), pp. 112–130. Available at:
  • Szulecki, K. (2018) ‘The Multiple Faces of Energy Security: An Introduction’, in K. Szulecki (ed.) Energy Security in Europe. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 1–29. Available at:
  • Toft, M.D. and Zhukov, Y.M. (2012) ‘Denial and punishment in the North Caucasus: Evaluating the effectiveness of coercive counter-insurgency’, Journal of Peace Research, 49(6), pp. 785–800. Available at:
  • Tsygankov, A.P. (2003) ‘Mastering space in Eurasia: Russia’s geopolitical thinking after the Soviet break-up’, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 36(1), pp. 101–127. Available at:
  • Wigell, M. and Vihma, A. (2016) ‘Geopolitics versus geoeconomics: the case of Russia’s geostrategy and its effects on the EU’, International Affairs, 92(3), pp. 605–627. Available at:
  • Wolff, A.T. (2015) ‘The future of NATO enlargement after the Ukraine crisis’, International Affairs, 91(5), pp. 1103–1121. Available at:
  • Ziegler, C.E. (2016) ‘Russia on the rebound: using and misusing the Responsibility to Protect’, International Relations, 30(3), pp. 346–361. Available at:

Lecture 11: Arctic

Core Required Reading

Likhacheva, A. (ed.) (2022) Arctic Fever: Political, Economic & Environmental Aspects. Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore. Available at:

  • Arctic as a New Playground for Great Power Competition: The Russia–China–United States Triangle
  • The Age of Climate Change, as a Challenge for States, and IR Theories
  • Climate Change and Energy Transition: Controversial Implications for the Arctic Region
  • Environment, Geopolitics and Environmental Geopolitics in the Arctic: Is There a Logic of Conflict Among Institutions of Cooperation?
  • A “Profound Change of Direction?” Canada’s Northern Strategy and the Co-Development of a “New” Arctic and Northern Policy Framework
  • Norway’s Arctic Policy: High North, Low Tension?
  • European Policies in the Arctic: National Strategies or a Common Vision?
  • Challenges and Common Agenda for Arctic Cooperation in the Post-pandemic Era: A Chinese Perspective

Recommended Reading

  • Bennett, M.M. (2015) ‘How China Sees the Arctic: Reading Between Extraregional and Intraregional Narratives’, Geopolitics, 20(3), pp. 645–668. Available at:
  • Bennett, M.M. and Iaquinto, B.L. (2021) ‘The geopolitics of China’s Arctic tourism resources’, Territory, Politics, Governance, pp. 1–22. Available at:
  • Bertelsen, R.G. (2022) ‘Arctic Order(s) Under Sino-American Bipolarity’, in M. Finger and G. Rekvig (eds) Global Arctic. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 463–481. Available at:
  • Blunden, M. (2012) ‘Geopolitics and the Northern Sea Route’, International Affairs, 88(1), pp. 115–129. Available at:
  • Dalby, S. (2013) ‘The geopolitics of climate change’, Political Geography, 37, pp. 38–47. Available at:
  • de Witt, M. et al. (2021) ‘Energy resources and electricity generation in Arctic areas’, Renewable Energy, 169, pp. 144–156. Available at:
  • Depledge, D. (2013) ‘Emerging UK Arctic policy’, International Affairs, 89(6), pp. 1445–1457. Available at:
  • Depledge, D., Dodds, K. and Kennedy-Pipe, C. (2019) ‘The UK’s Defence Arctic Strategy: Negotiating the Slippery Geopolitics of the UK and the Arctic’, The RUSI Journal, 164(1), pp. 28–39. Available at:
  • Dittmer, J. et al. (2011) ‘Have you heard the one about the disappearing ice? Recasting Arctic geopolitics’, Political Geography, 30(4), pp. 202–214. Available at:
  • Dodds, K. (2010) ‘A Polar Mediterranean? Accessibility, Resources and Sovereignty in the Arctic Ocean: A Polar Mediterranean?’, Global Policy, 1(3), pp. 303–311. Available at:
  • Dodds, K. (2019) ‘“Real interest”? Understanding the 2018 Agreement to Prevent Unregulated High Seas Fisheries in the Central Arctic Ocean’, Global Policy, 10(4), pp. 542–553. Available at:
  • Dodds, K. (2021) ‘Geopolitics and Ice Humanities: Elemental, Metaphorical and Volumetric Reverberations’, Geopolitics, 26(4), pp. 1121–1149. Available at:
  • Dodds, K. and Woon, C.Y. (2019) ‘Triumphant Geopolitics? Making Space of and for Arctic Geopolitics in the Arctic Ocean’, in N. Sellheim, Y.V. Zaika, and I. Kelman (eds) Arctic Triumph. Cham: Springer International Publishing (Springer Polar Sciences), pp. 163–180. Available at:
  • Ebinger, C.K. and Zambetakis, E. (2009) ‘The geopolitics of Arctic melt’, International Affairs, 85(6), pp. 1215–1232. Available at:
  • Fravel, M.T., Lavelle, K. and Odgaard, L. (2022) ‘China engages the Arctic: a great power in a regime complex’, Asian Security, 18(2), pp. 138–158. Available at:
  • Gadal, S., Zakharov, M. and Kamičaitytė, J. (2022) ‘Territorialisation, Urbanisation, and Economic Development in the Russian Arctic: Energy Issues’, in V.I. Salygin (ed.) Energy of the Russian Arctic. Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore, pp. 441–458. Available at:
  • Greaves, W. (2016) ‘Arctic (in)security and Indigenous peoples: Comparing Inuit in Canada and Sámi in Norway’, Security Dialogue, 47(6), pp. 461–480. Available at:
  • Hansen-Magnusson, H. (2019) ‘Arctic geopoetics: Russian politics at the North Pole’, Cooperation and Conflict, 54(4), pp. 466–487. Available at:
  • Hansen-Magnusson, H. (2022) ‘Making Polar and Ocean Governance Future-Proof’, Politics and Governance, 10(3). Available at:
  • Heininen, L. and Nicol, H.N. (2007) ‘The Importance of Northern Dimension Foreign Policies in the Geopolitics of the Circumpolar North’, Geopolitics, 12(1), pp. 133–165. Available at:
  • Jacobsen, M. (2020) ‘Greenland’s Arctic advantage: Articulations, acts and appearances of sovereignty games’, Cooperation and Conflict, 55(2), pp. 170–192. Available at:
  • Khrushcheva, O. and Poberezhskaya, M. (2016) ‘The Arctic in the political discourse of Russian leaders: the national pride and economic ambitions’, East European Politics, 32(4), pp. 547–566. Available at:
  • Knecht, S. (2017) ‘The politics of Arctic international cooperation: Introducing a dataset on stakeholder participation in Arctic Council meetings, 1998–2015’, Cooperation and Conflict, 52(2), pp. 203–223. Available at:
  • Lempinen, H. (2019) ‘The Elusive Social and the Arctic Energyscape’, in Lempinen, H., Arctic Energy and Social Sustainability. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 63–80. Available at:
  • Manicom, J. (2013) ‘Identity Politics and the Russia-Canada Continental Shelf Dispute: An Impediment to Cooperation?’, Geopolitics, 18(1), pp. 60–76. Available at:
  • Mariia, K. (2019) ‘China’s Arctic policy: present and future’, The Polar Journal, 9(1), pp. 94–112. Available at:
  • Medby, I.A. (2018) ‘Articulating state identity: “Peopling” the Arctic state’, Political Geography, 62, pp. 116–125. Available at:
  • Melchiorre, T. (2022) ‘The Akademik Lomonosov and the Arctic legal regime: geopolitics versus international law?’, Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 30(4), pp. 738–749. Available at:
  • Øverland, I. (2010) ‘Russia’s Arctic Energy Policy’, International Journal: Canada’s Journal of Global Policy Analysis, 65(4), pp. 865–878. Available at:
  • Roberts, K. (2021) ‘Understanding Russia’s security priorities in the Arctic: why Canada-Russia cooperation is still possible’, Canadian Foreign Policy Journal, 27(2), pp. 211–227. Available at:
  • Solli, P.E., Wilson Rowe, E. and Yennie Lindgren, W. (2013) ‘Coming into the cold: Asia’s Arctic interests’, Polar Geography, 36(4), pp. 253–270. Available at:
  • Strandsbjerg, J. (2012) ‘Cartopolitics, Geopolitics and Boundaries in the Arctic’, Geopolitics, 17(4), pp. 818–842. Available at:
  • Tonami, A. (2014) ‘The Arctic policy of China and Japan: multi-layered economic and strategic motivations’, The Polar Journal, 4(1), pp. 105–126. Available at:
  • Warde, P. (2018) ‘Constructing Arctic Energy Resources: The Case of the Canadian North, 1921–1980’, in N. Wormbs (ed.) Competing Arctic Futures. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 19–46. Available at:
  • Weidacher Hsiung, C. (2016) ‘China and Arctic energy: drivers and limitations’, The Polar Journal, 6(2), pp. 243–258. Available at:
  • Wilson Rowe, E. (2020) ‘Analyzing frenemies: An Arctic repertoire of cooperation and rivalry’, Political Geography, 76, p. 102072. Available at:
  • Wilson Rowe, E. and Blakkisrud, H. (2014) ‘A New Kind of Arctic Power? Russia’s Policy Discourses and Diplomatic Practices in the Circumpolar North’, Geopolitics, 19(1), pp. 66–85. Available at:
  • Woon, C.Y. (2020) ‘Framing the “Polar Silk Road” (冰上丝绸之路): Critical geopolitics, Chinese scholars and the (Re)Positionings of China’s Arctic interests’, Political Geography, 78, p. 102141. Available at:

Required Students’ Skills

Read the course materials carefully and focus on the core and recommended readings that will greatly increase your level of knowledge.

Learn how to use search engines for academic articles, primarily Web of Science, JSTOR, SAGE Journals, and Google Scholar.

To pass an essay assignment with flying colours, you must master the Harvard citation style. Also, it is highly recommended to read the following publication about research methods and design to improve your essay score:

  • Lamont, C. and Boduszynski, M. (2020) Research methods in politics and international relations. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.

Throughout the course, students are also expected to familiarise themselves with leading academic journals to locate the latest articles, thereby connecting with the international relations academic community.

Scroll to Top