International Diplomacy – Postgraduate Course Syllabus

Course Description

This advanced postgraduate diplomacy course aims to promote not only modern diplomatic scholarship, but also a more technical understanding of how diplomats and diplomatic bodies work in actual situations. It discusses normative strategies on how diplomacy should adapt to the 21st century, contribute to the peaceful development of the international order, and contribute to the reshaping of international relations. Students can explore both the theoretical and practical facets of diplomatic missions.

Applying the Aristotelian method of teaching, I will focus on developing both the intellectual and moral virtues of students. Intellectual virtues are character traits such as the ability to judge the truth and comprehend the nature of things, whereas moral virtues are habits of living that involve the whole person and include justice, temperance, prudence, and fortitude, which are characterised by desire and emotion.

In addition, I designed the course with the following implications in mind: to understand the diverse backgrounds of undergraduate students, to provide full support to non-native speakers in relation to academic English, and to engage the students in practical discussions and seminars. An inclusive curriculum implements policies and resources to ensure that all students are supported in their learning.

Learning Objectives and Outcomes

  • Analyse and apply different theoretical approaches to diplomacy.
  • Critically examine the reasons for cooperation and peacebuilding.
  • Engage in contemporary theoretical discussions on diplomacy.
  • Construct and defend theoretically challenging arguments on modern diplomacy.
  • Learn to think and write critically about crucial diplomatic concepts.
  • Effective communication in professional applications of the diplomatic service.
  • Developing innovative ways of thinking about the practical implications of diplomatic service (negotiation, soft power, intelligence, observation of events, digital diplomacy).

Reading Materials

Foundation texts

  1. Berridge, G.R. (2022) Diplomacy: Theory and Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  2. Hutchings, R. and Suri, J. (eds) (2020) Modern Diplomacy in Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  3. Spies, Y.K. (2019) Global Diplomacy and International Society. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:

Supportive texts

  • Bjola, C. and Kornprobst, M. (2018) Understanding international diplomacy: theory, practice and ethics. Second Edition. London; New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Constantinou, C.M. (ed.) (2016) The SAGE handbook of diplomacy. Los Angeles: SAGE.
  • Gaetan, V. (2021) God’s diplomats: Pope Francis, Vatican diplomacy, and America’s Armageddon. Lanham Boulder New York London: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Griffin, N. (2015) Ping-pong diplomacy: the secret history behind the game that changed the world. First Skyhorse Publishing paperback edition. New York, NY: Skyhorse Publishing.
  • Indyk, M. (2021) Master of the game: Henry Kissinger and the art of Middle East diplomacy. First edition. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Ivanov, I.S. (2002) The new Russian diplomacy. Washington, D.C.: Nixon Center: Brookings Institution Press.
  • Kissinger, H. (2015) World order: reflections on the character of nations and the course of history. London: Penguin Books (Penguin politics).
  • Masser, A., Yorke, C. and Spence, J.E. (eds) (2021) Contemporary diplomacy in action: new perspectives on diplomacy. First edition. London [England]: I.B. Tauris.
  • Satow, E.M. (2018) Satow’s diplomatic practice. Seventh edition, first published in paperback, centenary edition. Edited by I. Roberts. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Spence, J., Yorke, C. and Masser, A. (eds) (2021) A new theory and practice of diplomacy: new perspectives on diplomacy. London New York Oxford New Delhi Sydney: I.B. Tauris.

Additionally, recommended readings based on scholarly articles are provided for each lecture to introduce students to academic analytical and critical thinking.
The quality of teaching, course content, and literature included reflects the advanced practice of worldwide recognised departments of politics and international relations.

Course Content

Lecture 1: Origins of Diplomatic Thoughts

Core Required Reading

Spies, Y.K. (2019) Global Diplomacy and International Society. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:

  • Origins and Evolution of Diplomacy

Recommended Reading

  • Bajoni, M.G. (2018) ‘Envoys’ Speeches at the Peace Negotiations of 561–562 AD between the Byzantine Empire and the Persian Kingdom’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 29(3), pp. 353–371. Available at:
  • Bennett, A. (2021) ‘British Material Diplomacy in Precolonial Uganda: The Gift Exchanges of John Hanning Speke, 1860-1863’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 16(1), pp. 166–174. Available at:
  • Boesche, R. (2003) ‘Kautilya’s Arthasastra on War and Diplomacy in Ancient India’, The Journal of Military History, 67(1), pp. 9–37. Available at:
  • Brazil, P. (1975) ‘Some Reflections on the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties’, Federal Law Review, 6(2), pp. 223–248. Available at:
  • Briggs, H.W. (1974) ‘Unilateral Denunciation of Treaties: The Vienna Convention and the International Court of Justice’, American Journal of International Law, 68(1), pp. 51–68. Available at:
  • Brown, J. (1988) ‘Diplomatic Immunity: State Practice Under the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations’, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 37(1), pp. 53–88. Available at:
  • Carrió-Invernizzi, D. (2014) ‘A New Diplomatic History and the Networks of Spanish Diplomacy in the Baroque Era’, The International History Review, 36(4), pp. 603–618. Available at:
  • Cohen, R. (1999) ‘Reflections on the New Global Diplomacy: Statecraft 2500 bc to 2000 ad’, in J. Melissen (ed.) Innovation in Diplomatic Practice. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 1–18. Available at:
  • Cuddy, E. (1986) ‘America’s Cuban Obsession: A Case Study in Diplomacy and Psycho-History’, The Americas, 43(2), pp. 183–196. Available at:
  • Cull, N.J. (2008) ‘Public Diplomacy: Taxonomies and Histories’, The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 616(1), pp. 31–54. Available at:
  • Feldbrugge, F.J.M. (ed.) (2000) ‘Before Hammurabi of Babylon: Law and the Laws in Early Mesopotamia’, in The Law’s Beginnings. Brill | Nijhoff, pp. 137–159. Available at:
  • Gould-Davies, N. (2003) ‘The Logic of Soviet Cultural Diplomacy’, Diplomatic History, 27(2), pp. 193–214. Available at:
  • Grenet, M. (2015) ‘Muslim Missions to Early Modern France, c.1610-c.1780: Notes for a Social History of Cross-Cultural Diplomacy’, Journal of Early Modern History, 19(2–3), pp. 223–244. Available at:
  • Iliev, J. (2020) ‘Thracians in the Second Macedonian War (200–197 B.C.)’, Hiperboreea, 7(2), pp. 109–121. Available at:
  • Kühnel, F. (2021) ‘The Ambassador is Dead – Long Live the Ambassadress: Gender, Rank and Proxy Representation in Early Modern Diplomacy’, The International History Review, pp. 1–17. Available at:
  • Kuijper, P.J. (1998) ‘The Court and the Tribunal of the EC and the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969’, Legal Issues of Economic Integration, 25(Issue 1), pp. 1–23. Available at:
  • Lubkin, G. (1986) ‘Strategic Hospitality: Foreign Dignitaries at the Court of Milan, 1466–1476’, The International History Review, 8(2), pp. 174–189. Available at:
  • Mattingly, G. (1937) ‘The First Resident Embassies: Mediaeval Italian Origins of Modern Diplomacy’, Speculum, 12(4), pp. 423–439. Available at:
  • McLynn, N. and Sivan, H. (1995) ‘Ambrose of Milan: Church and Court in A Christian Capital’, History: Reviews of New Books, 24(1), pp. 27–27. Available at:
  • Nash, P. (2022) ‘The Daughters of Yalta: The Churchills, Roosevelts, and Harrimans: A Story of Love and War, written by Catherine Grace Katz’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, pp. 1–2. Available at:
  • Neumann, I.B. (2006) ‘Sublime Diplomacy: Byzantine, Early Modern, Contemporary’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 34(3), pp. 865–888. Available at:
  • Neumann, I.B. (2018) ‘A prehistorical evolutionary view of diplomacy’, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 14(1), pp. 4–10. Available at:
  • Pirillo, D. (2019) ‘Practices of Diplomacy in the Early Modern World c.1410–1800, ed. Tracey A. Sowerby and Jan Hennings’, The English Historical Review, 134(567), pp. 453–454. Available at:
  • Reeves, J.S. and Grotius, H. (1929) ‘Grotius on the Training of an Ambassador’, American Journal of International Law, 23(3), pp. 619–625. Available at:
  • Roosen, W. (1980) ‘Early Modern Diplomatic Ceremonial: A Systems Approach’, The Journal of Modern History, 52(3), pp. 452–476. Available at:
  • Ruffini, P.-B. (2017) ‘What Is Science Diplomacy?’, in Ruffini, P.-B., Science and Diplomacy. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 11–26. Available at:
  • Schweizer, K.W. and Schumann, M.J. (2008) ‘The Revitalization of Diplomatic History: Renewed Reflections’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 19(2), pp. 149–186. Available at:
  • Sofer, S. (1988) ‘Old and new diplomacy: a debate revisited’, Review of International Studies, 14(3), pp. 195–211. Available at:
  • Sowerby, T.A. (2012) ‘Diplomacy and Culture in Early Modern Europe, ed. Robyn Adams and Rosanna Cox’, The English Historical Review, 127(529), pp. 1501–1503. Available at:
  • Sowerby, T.A. (2016) ‘Early Modern Diplomatic History: Early Modern Diplomatic History’, History Compass, 14(9), pp. 441–456. Available at:
  • Sowerby, T.A. (2017) ‘Communication and Conflict: Italian Diplomacy in the Early Renaissance, 1350–1520, by Isabella LazzariniDiplomacy in Renaissance Rome: The Rise of the Resident Ambassador, by Catherine Fletcher’, The English Historical Review, 132(557), pp. 965–967. Available at:
  • Sowerby, T.A. (2021) ‘Masculinity, ambassadorial handbooks, and early modern English diplomacy’, The International History Review, pp. 1–20. Available at:
  • Toby, R.P. (1984) State and Diplomacy in Early Modern Japan: Asia in the Development of the Tokugawa Bakufu. Princeton University Press. Available at:
  • Urrestarazu, U.S. (2015) ‘“Vienna Calling”: Diplomacy and the Ordering of Intercommunal Relations at the Congress of Vienna’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 10(3), pp. 231–260. Available at:
  • Walsh, C. (2021) ‘Techniques for Egyptian Eyes: Diplomacy and the Transmission of Cosmetic Practices between Egypt and Kerma’, Journal of Egyptian History, 13(1–2), pp. 295–332. Available at:
  • Westad, O.A. (2000) ‘The New International History of the Cold War: Three (Possible) Paradigms’, Diplomatic History, 24(4), pp. 551–565. Available at:
  • Whitby, M. (2008) ‘Byzantine diplomacy: good faith, trust and co-operation in international relations in Late Antiquity’, in P. de Souza and J. France (eds) War and Peace in Ancient and Medieval History. 1st edn. Cambridge University Press, pp. 120–140. Available at:
  • White, J.M. (2015) ‘Fetva Diplomacy: The Ottoman Şeyhülislam as Trans-Imperial Intermediary’, Journal of Early Modern History, 19(2–3), pp. 199–221. Available at:
  • Zeiler, T.W. (2009) ‘The Diplomatic History Bandwagon: A State of the Field’, Journal of American History, 95(4), pp. 1053–1073. Available at:
  • Zielinska, A. (2021) ‘Anglo-Papal Relations in the Early Fourteenth Century: A Study in Medieval Diplomacy, by Barbara Bombi’, The English Historical Review, 136(579), pp. 409–411. Available at:

Lecture 2: Concepts of Diplomacy

Core Required Reading

  1. Spies, Y.K. (2019) Global Diplomacy and International Society. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  • The (Not So Pure) Concept of Diplomacy
  1. Hutchings, R. and Suri, J. (eds) (2020) Modern Diplomacy in Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  • Brazil

Recommended Reading

  • Acheson, D. (1958) Power and Diplomacy: Harvard University Press. Available at:
  • Bell, C. (1977) ‘Kissinger in Retrospect: The Diplomacy of Power-Concert?’, International Affairs, 53(2), pp. 202–216. Available at:
  • Berridge, G.R. (2001) ‘Machiavelli: human nature, good faith, and diplomacy’, Review of International Studies, 27(4), pp. 539–556. Available at:
  • Bettie, M. (2020) ‘Exchange diplomacy: theory, policy and practice in the Fulbright program’, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 16(3), pp. 212–223. Available at:
  • Cooper, A.F. and Cornut, J. (2019) ‘The changing practices of frontline diplomacy: New directions for inquiry’, Review of International Studies, 45(2), pp. 300–319. Available at:
  • Cornago, N. (2010) ‘On the Normalization of Sub-State Diplomacy’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 5(1–2), pp. 11–36. Available at:
  • de Boer, G. and Weisglas, F. (2007) ‘Parliamentary Diplomacy’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 2(1), pp. 93–99. Available at:
  • Egwemi, V. and Ochim, F.I. (2016) ‘Reciprocity in International Affairs: An Analysis of Nigeria/South Africa “Yellow Fever” Diplomatic Face-Off, March, 2012’, African Research Review, 10(1), p. 116. Available at:
  • Faizullaev, A. (2013) ‘Diplomacy and Symbolism’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 8(2), pp. 91–114. Available at:
  • Griset, P. (2020) ‘Innovation Diplomacy: A New Concept for Ancient Practices?’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 15(3), pp. 383–397. Available at:
  • Hartig, F. (2013) ‘Panda Diplomacy: The Cutest Part of China’s Public Diplomacy’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 8(1), pp. 49–78. Available at:
  • Henrikson, A.K. (2006) ‘Diplomacy’s Possible Futures’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 1(1), pp. 3–27. Available at:
  • Jönsson, C. (2022) ‘Theorising Diplomacy’, in McKercher, B. J. C., The Routledge Handbook of Diplomacy and Statecraft. 2nd edn. London: Routledge, pp. 13–26. Available at:
  • Keens-Soper, M. (1973) ‘Francois de Callieres and Diplomatic Theory’, The Historical Journal, 16(3), pp. 485–508. Available at:
  • Keens‐Soper, M. (1997) ‘Abraham de Wicquefort and diplomatic theory’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 8(2), pp. 16–30. Available at:
  • Kelley, J.R. (2007) ‘US Public Diplomacy: A Cold War Success Story?’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 2(1), pp. 53–79. Available at:
  • Kinne, B.J. (2014) ‘Dependent Diplomacy: Signaling, Strategy, and Prestige in the Diplomatic Network’, International Studies Quarterly, 58(2), pp. 247–259. Available at:
  • Laatikainen, K.V. and Smith, K.E. (2017) ‘Introduction: The Multilateral Politics of UN Diplomacy’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 12(2–3), pp. 95–112. Available at:
  • Lee, D. and Hudson, D. (2004) ‘The old and new significance of political economy in diplomacy’, Review of International Studies, 30(3), pp. 343–360. Available at:
  • Linklater, A. (1986) ‘Realism, Marxism and critical international theory’, Review of International Studies, 12(4), pp. 301–312. Available at:
  • Melissen, J., Okano-Heijmans, M. and van Bergeijk, P.A.G. (2011) ‘Economic Diplomacy: The Issues’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 6(1–2), pp. 1–6. Available at:
  • Murray, S. et al. (2011) ‘The Present and Future of Diplomacy and Diplomatic Studies: Diplomacy and Diplomatic Studies: Present and Future’, International Studies Review, 13(4), pp. 709–728. Available at:
  • Navarro Bonilla, D. (2012) ‘“Secret Intelligences” in European Military, Political and Diplomatic Theory: An Essential Factor in the Defense of the Modern State (Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries)’, Intelligence and National Security, 27(2), pp. 283–301. Available at:
  • Okano-Heijmans, M. (2011) ‘Conceptualizing Economic Diplomacy:The Crossroads of International Relations, Economics, IPE and Diplomatic Studies’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 6(1–2), pp. 7–36. Available at:
  • Peksen, D. and Jeong, J.M. (2022) ‘Coercive Diplomacy and Economic Sanctions Reciprocity: Explaining Targets’ Counter-Sanctions’, Defence and Peace Economics, 33(8), pp. 895–911. Available at:
  • Pletcher, D.M. (1978) ‘Reciprocity and Latin America in the Early 1890s: A Foretaste of Dollar Diplomacy’, Pacific Historical Review, 47(1), pp. 53–89. Available at:
  • Pletcher, D.M. (1978) ‘Reciprocity and Latin America in the Early 1890s: A Foretaste of Dollar Diplomacy’, Pacific Historical Review, 47(1), pp. 53–89. Available at:
  • Pouliot, V. and Cornut, J. (2015) ‘Practice theory and the study of diplomacy: A research agenda’, Cooperation and Conflict, 50(3), pp. 297–315. Available at:
  • Prushankin, K. (2022) ‘Understanding Russian Strategic Behavior: Imperial Strategic Culture and Putin’s Operational Code, written by Graeme P. Herd’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, pp. 1–4. Available at:
  • Quackenbush, S.L. (2011) ‘Deterrence theory: where do we stand?’, Review of International Studies, 37(2), pp. 741–762. Available at:
  • Rana, K.S. (2006) ‘Singapore’s Diplomacy: Vulnerability into Strength’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 1(1), pp. 81–106. Available at:
  • Reynolds, C. (1978) ‘Carl von Clausewitz and strategic theory’, British Journal of International Studies, 4(2), pp. 178–190. Available at:
  • Roberts, G. (2006) ‘History, theory and the narrative turn in IR’, Review of International Studies, 32(4), pp. 703–714. Available at:
  • Ross, G. (1975) ‘Allied diplomacy in the Second World War’, British Journal of International Studies, 1(3), pp. 283–292. Available at:
  • Sharp, P. (2003) ‘Mullah Zaeef and Taliban diplomacy: an English School approach’, Review of International Studies, 29(4), pp. 481–498. Available at:
  • Squatrito, T. (2021) ‘Judicial diplomacy: International courts and legitimation’, Review of International Studies, 47(1), pp. 64–84. Available at:
  • Steiner, B.H. (2004) ‘Diplomacy and international theory’, Review of International Studies, 30(4), pp. 493–509. Available at:
  • Thérien, J.-P. and Bélanger Dumontier, M. (2009) ‘The United Nations and Global Democracy: From Discourse to Deeds’, Cooperation and Conflict, 44(4), pp. 355–377. Available at:
  • Towns, A.E. (2020) ‘“Diplomacy is a feminine art”: Feminised figurations of the diplomat’, Review of International Studies, 46(5), pp. 573–593. Available at:
  • Winter, T. (2015) ‘Heritage diplomacy’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 21(10), pp. 997–1015. Available at:
  • Wiseman, G. (2015) ‘Diplomatic practices at the United Nations’, Cooperation and Conflict, 50(3), pp. 316–333. Available at:

Lecture 3: The Law of Diplomacy

Core Required Reading

  1. Spies, Y.K. (2019) Global Diplomacy and International Society. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  • The Law of Diplomacy
  1. Hutchings, R. and Suri, J. (eds) (2020) Modern Diplomacy in Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  • China

Recommended Reading

  • Borchard, E.M. (1913) ‘Basic Elements of Diplomatic Protection of Citizens Abroad’, American Journal of International Law, 7(3), pp. 497–520. Available at:
  • Cusumano, E. (2017) ‘Diplomatic Security for Hire: The Causes and Implications of Outsourcing Embassy Protection’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 12(1), pp. 27–55. Available at:
  • Cusumano, E. and Kinsey, C. (2015) ‘Bureaucratic Interests and the Outsourcing of Security: The Privatization of Diplomatic Protection in the United States and the United Kingdom’, Armed Forces & Society, 41(4), pp. 591–615. Available at:
  • Duquet, S. (2018) ‘Bound or Unbridled? A Legal Perspective on the Diplomatic Functions of European Union Delegations’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 13(1), pp. 21–40. Available at:
  • Eichelberger, C.M. (1947) ‘The United Nations Charter: A Growing Document’, The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 252(1), pp. 97–105. Available at:
  • Evans, A.E. (1952) ‘The Colombian-Peruvian Asylum Case: The Practice of Diplomatic Asylum’, American Political Science Review, 46(1), pp. 142–157. Available at:
  • Forcese, C. (2006) ‘The Capacity to Protect: Diplomatic Protection of Dual Nationals in the “War on Terror”’, European Journal of International Law, 17(2), pp. 369–394. Available at:
  • Fox, G.H. and Roth, B.R. (2001) ‘Democracy and international law’, Review of International Studies, 27(03). Available at:
  • Friedrich, C.J. (1947) ‘The Ideology of the United Nations Charter and the Philosophy of Peace of Immanuel Kant 1795-1945’, The Journal of Politics, 9(1), pp. 10–30. Available at:
  • Gaja, G. (2010) ‘The Position of Individuals in International Law: An ILC Perspective’, European Journal of International Law, 21(1), pp. 11–14. Available at:
  • Gianniti, L. and Lupo, N. (2016) ‘The Role of the European Parliament President in Parliamentary Diplomacy’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 11(2–3), pp. 144–160. Available at:
  • Glennon, M.J. (1991) ‘The Constitution and Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter’, American Journal of International Law, 85(1), pp. 74–88. Available at:
  • Graefrath, B. (1991) ‘The International Law Commission Tomorrow: Improving its Organization and Methods of Work’, American Journal of International Law, 85(4), pp. 595–612. Available at:
  • Holsti, K.J. (1982) ‘Bargaining theory and diplomatic reality : the CSCE negotations’, Review of International Studies, 8(3), pp. 159–170. Available at:
  • Hurd, I. (2011) ‘Law and the Practice of Diplomacy’, International Journal: Canada’s Journal of Global Policy Analysis, 66(3), pp. 581–596. Available at:
  • Langhorne, R. (1992) ‘The regulation of diplomatic practice: the beginnings to the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, 1961’, Review of International Studies, 18(1), pp. 3–17. Available at:
  • Lauren, P.G. (1983) ‘First Principles of Racial Equality: History and the Politics and Diplomacy of Human Rights Provisions in the United Nations Charter’, Human Rights Quarterly, 5(1), p. 1. Available at:
  • Lillich, R.B. (1975) ‘The Diplomatic Protection of Nationals Abroad: An Elementary Principle of International Law Under Attack’, American Journal of International Law, 69(2), pp. 359–365. Available at:
  • Magee, F. (2000) ‘Conducting Locarno Diplomacy: Britain and the Austro-German Customs Union Crisis, 1931’, Twentieth Century British History, 11(2), pp. 105–134. Available at:
  • McKeown, R. (2017) ‘International law and its discontents: Exploring the dark sides of international law in International Relations’, Review of International Studies, 43(3), pp. 430–452. Available at:
  • Morton, J.S. (1997) ‘The international law commission of the United Nations: Legal vacuum or microcosm of world politics?’, International Interactions, 23(1), pp. 37–54. Available at:
  • Müller, L. (2006) ‘THE SWEDISH CONSULAR SERVICE IN SOUTHERN EUROPE, 1720–1815’, Scandinavian Journal of History, 31(2), pp. 186–195. Available at:
  • Murphy, S.D. (2020) ‘Peremptory Norms of General International Law (Jus Cogens) and Other Topics: The Seventy-First Session of the International Law Commission’, American Journal of International Law, 114(1), pp. 68–86. Available at:
  • Nardin, T. (1977) ‘The laws of war and moral judgment’, British Journal of International Studies, 3(2), pp. 121–136. Available at:
  • Nardin, T. (2008) ‘Theorising the international rule of law’, Review of International Studies, 34(3), pp. 385–401. Available at:
  • Neumann, I.B. (2012) ‘Euro-centric diplomacy: Challenging but manageable’, European Journal of International Relations, 18(2), pp. 299–321. Available at:
  • Ogdon, M. (1937) ‘The Growth of Purpose in the Law of Diplomatic Immunity’, American Journal of International Law, 31(3), pp. 449–465. Available at:
  • Paparinskis, M. (2013) ‘Investment Treaty Arbitration and the (New) Law of State Responsibility’, European Journal of International Law, 24(2), pp. 617–647. Available at:
  • Potestá, M. (2012) ‘Republic of Italy v. Republic of Cuba’, American Journal of International Law, 106(2), pp. 341–347. Available at:
  • Ralph, J. (2009) ‘The laws of war and the state of the American exception’, Review of International Studies, 35(3), pp. 631–649. Available at:
  • Rapp, K. (2020) ‘Law and contestation in international negotiations’, Review of International Studies, 46(5), pp. 672–690. Available at:
  • Riveles, S. (1989) ‘Diplomatic Asylum as a Human Right: The Case of the Durban Six’, Human Rights Quarterly, 11(1), p. 139. Available at:
  • Romano, R. (2000) ‘No Diplomatic Immunity: African Diplomats, the State Department, and Civil Rights, 1961-1964’, The Journal of American History, 87(2), p. 546. Available at:
  • Roosen, A. (2019) ‘Dutch Diplomatic Representation for Israel in Poland (1967–1990)’, East European Jewish Affairs, 49(2), pp. 113–130. Available at:
  • Sacriste, G. and Vauchez, A. (2007) ‘The Force of International Law: Lawyers’ Diplomacy on the International Scene in the 1920s: The Force of International Law’, Law & Social Inquiry, 32(1), pp. 83–107. Available at:
  • Scott-Smith, G. (2017) ‘Edges of Diplomacy: Literary Representations of the (Honorary) Consul and the Public-Private Divide in Diplomatic Studies’, New Global Studies, 11(2). Available at:
  • Sinclair, A. (2011) ‘Law, caution: towards a better understanding of law for IR theorists’, Review of International Studies, 37(3), pp. 1095–1112. Available at:
  • Taylor, S. (2019) ‘Australia’s diplomatic asylum initiative at the United Nations: comparing international law rhetoric with foreign policy practice’, Australian Journal of International Affairs, 73(4), pp. 376–396. Available at:
  • Vermeer-Kunzli, A. (2007) ‘As If: The Legal Fiction in Diplomatic Protection’, European Journal of International Law, 18(1), pp. 37–68. Available at:
  • Wilcox, F.O. (1954) ‘How the United Nations Charter Has Developed’, The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 296(1), pp. 1–13. Available at:

Lecture 4: Diplomatic Corps

Core Required Reading

  1. Spies, Y.K. (2019) Global Diplomacy and International Society. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  • Bureaucratic Management of Diplomats and Diplomacy
  1. Hutchings, R. and Suri, J. (eds) (2020) Modern Diplomacy in Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  • France

Recommended Reading

  • Adesina, O.S. (2017) ‘Foreign policy in an era of digital diplomacy’, Cogent Social Sciences. Edited by J. Summers, 3(1), p. 1297175. Available at:
  • Aguas, L. and Pampinella, S. (2022) ‘The Embodiment of Hegemony: Diplomatic Practices in the Ecuadorian Foreign Ministry’, International Studies Quarterly, 66(2), p. sqac014. Available at:
  • Beaud, G. (2022) ‘Negotiating public service bargains in postrevolutionary times: The case of Iran’s diplomatic corps’, Governance, p. gove.12712. Available at:
  • Berridge, G.R. (1994) ‘The Diplomatic Corps’, in Berridge, G. R., Talking to the Enemy. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 75–100. Available at:
  • Berridge, G.R. (2011) ‘The Origins of the Diplomatic Corps: Rome to Constantinople’, in Berridge, G. R., The Counter-Revolution in Diplomacy and other essays. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 16–31. Available at:
  • Berridge, G.R. and Gallo, N. (1999) ‘The Role of the Diplomatic Corps: the US-North Korea Talks in Beijing, 1988–94’, in J. Melissen (ed.) Innovation in Diplomatic Practice. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 214–230. Available at:
  • Bridges, B. (2016) ‘Red or Expert? The Anglo–Soviet Exchange of Ambassadors in 1929’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 27(3), pp. 437–452. Available at:
  • Bridges, P. (2006) ‘George Kennan Reminisces About Moscow in 1933–1937’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 17(2), pp. 283–293. Available at:
  • Brütsch, C. (2014) ‘Technocratic manager, imperial agent, or diplomatic champion? The IMF in the anarchical society’, Review of International Studies, 40(2), pp. 207–226. Available at:
  • Cobbing, A. (2017) ‘Opening Legations: Japan’s First Resident Minister and the Diplomatic Corps in Europe’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 28(2), pp. 195–214. Available at:
  • Dittmer, J. (2019) ‘The Diplomatic Corps of Things’, Diplomatica, 1(1), pp. 13–18. Available at:
  • Do Paço, D. (2022) ‘Women in Diplomacy in Late Eighteenth-Century Istanbul’, The Historical Journal, 65(3), pp. 640–662. Available at:
  • Dursteler, E.R. (2001) ‘The Bailo in Constantinople: Crisis and Career in Venice’s Early Modern Diplomatic Corps’, Mediterranean Historical Review, 16(2), pp. 1–30. Available at:
  • Faizullaev, A. (2006) ‘Diplomacy and Self’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 17(3), pp. 497–522. Available at:
  • Fewster, J.M. (1998) ‘Lord Ponsonby and the Churchill affair of 1836: An episode in the eastern question’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 9(2), pp. 55–90. Available at:
  • Fulda, A. (2019) ‘The Emergence of Citizen Diplomacy in European Union–China Relations: Principles, Pillars, Pioneers, Paradoxes’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 30(1), pp. 188–216. Available at:
  • Goldberg, J. (2000) ‘Sporting diplomacy: Boosting the size of the diplomatic corps’, The Washington Quarterly, 23(4), pp. 63–70. Available at:
  • Harris, B. (2002) ‘Ernest Satow’s Early Career as Diplomatic Interpreter’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 13(2), pp. 116–134. Available at:
  • Hughes, M. (2003) ‘The peripatetic career structure of the British diplomatic establishment, 1919-39’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 14(1), pp. 29–48. Available at:
  • Ji, Y. (2014) ‘The PLA and Diplomacy: unraveling myths about the military role in foreign policy making’, Journal of Contemporary China, 23(86), pp. 236–254. Available at:
  • Keller, G.N. (2013) ‘Reforming Indonesia’s Foreign Ministry: Ideas, Organization and Leadership’, CONTEMPORARY SOUTHEAST ASIA, 35(1), p. 56. Available at:
  • Kelley, J.R. (2010) ‘The New Diplomacy: Evolution of a Revolution’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 21(2), pp. 286–305. Available at:
  • Kleiner, J. (2008) ‘The Inertia of Diplomacy’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 19(2), pp. 321–349. Available at:
  • Kocho-Williams, A. (2020) ‘“Embassy without Government”: The Council of Ambassadors and the Persistence of Tsarist Diplomacy after the Russian Revolution’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 31(3), pp. 469–486. Available at:
  • Lafont, B. (2001) ‘International relations in the ancient Near East: The birth of a complete diplomatic system’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 12(1), pp. 39–60. Available at:
  • Landsberg, C. and Georghiou, C. (2015) ‘The foreign policy and diplomatic attributes of a developmental state: South Africa as case study’, South African Journal of International Affairs, 22(4), pp. 479–495. Available at:
  • McDiarmid, J.F. and Wabuda, S. (eds) (2021) ‘The Cambridge Connection and the Early Elizabethan Diplomatic Corps’, in The Cambridge Connection in Tudor England. BRILL, pp. 266–290. Available at:
  • Pugliese, G. (2017) ‘Kantei diplomacy? Japan’s hybrid leadership in foreign and security policy’, The Pacific Review, 30(2), pp. 152–168. Available at:
  • Robertson, J. (2019) ‘Tradition and Modernity in South Korea’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 30(4), pp. 808–815. Available at:
  • Roider, K.A. (1989) ‘The Habsburg Foreign Ministry and Political Reform, 1801–1805’, Central European History, 22(2), pp. 160–182. Available at:
  • Smith, K. (2017) ‘The realism that did not speak its name: E. H. Carr’s diplomatic histories of the twenty years’ crisis’, Review of International Studies, 43(3), pp. 475–493. Available at:
  • Stone, J.J. (2015) ‘Bismarck’s Don Quixotes of Legitimacy: The Dynastic Diplomacy of Prince Reuss and General Schweinitz’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 26(1), pp. 1–24. Available at:
  • Sun, J. (2017) ‘Growing Diplomacy, Retreating Diplomats – How the Chinese Foreign Ministry has been Marginalized in Foreign Policymaking’, Journal of Contemporary China, 26(105), pp. 419–433. Available at:
  • Thorpe, N. (2020) ‘Behind the Iron Curtain in Poland – A Personal Memoir’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 31(2), pp. 373–384. Available at:
  • Uziel, E. (2019) ‘A Diamond of Intense Brilliance in the Diadem of Brazilian Diplomacy: The 1953 Plan for Peace in Jerusalem’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 30(1), pp. 1–25. Available at:
  • van Der Mey, L.M. (1997) ‘How to exchange ambassadors? The diplomatic dialogue between India and china after the 1962 war’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 8(2), pp. 148–166. Available at:
  • Van Goethem, G. (2017) ‘Bevin’s Boys Abroad: British Labor Diplomacy in the Cold War Era’, New Global Studies, 11(2). Available at:
  • Völker, T. (2021) ‘Holding High the Hanseatic Cross in the Levant: Andreas David Mordtmann and the Diplomatic Milieu of Istanbul’, The International History Review, 43(5), pp. 1122–1141. Available at:
  • Walsh, B.P. (2019) ‘“Japanese Foreign Ministry’s Document Destruction Order of 7 August 1945”’, The Journal of American-East Asian Relations, 26(1), pp. 85–94. Available at:
  • Wiegeshoff, A. (2018) ‘The “New Look” of German Diplomacy: The West German Foreign Service after the Second World War’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 29(2), pp. 187–207. Available at:
  • Zakharova, O. (2021) ‘Cultural communications of the diplomatic corps as a public institution’, Linguistics and Culture Review, 5(S4). Available at:

Lecture 5: Diplomatic Culture

Core Required Reading

  1. Spies, Y.K. (2019) Global Diplomacy and International Society. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  • Diplomatic Culture
  1. Hutchings, R. and Suri, J. (eds) (2020) Modern Diplomacy in Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  • Germany

Recommended Reading

  • Allen, G. (2019) ‘THE RISE OF THE AMBASSADRESS: ENGLISH AMBASSADORIAL WIVES AND EARLY MODERN DIPLOMATIC CULTURE’, The Historical Journal, 62(3), pp. 617–638. Available at:
  • Auwers, M. (2013) ‘The Gift of Rubens: Rethinking the Concept of Gift-Giving in Early Modern Diplomacy’, European History Quarterly, 43(3), pp. 421–441. Available at:
  • Ayhan, K.J. and Jang, S. (2022) ‘Inter-Korean People-to-People Diplomacy: Social and Cultural Exchanges across the 38th Parallel’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, pp. 1–38. Available at:
  • Birka, I., Kļaviņš, D. and Kits, R. (2022) ‘Duty of Care: Consular Diplomacy Response of Baltic and Nordic Countries to COVID-19’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, pp. 1–32. Available at:
  • Brandsma, G.J. et al. (2021) ‘Trilogues in Council: disrupting the diplomatic culture?’, Journal of European Public Policy, 28(1), pp. 10–31. Available at:
  • Churruca-Muguruza, C. (2022) ‘Everyday Migrant Accompaniment: Humanitarian Border Diplomacy’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 17(1), pp. 1–31. Available at:
  • Clements, R. (2019) ‘BRUSH TALK AS THE “LINGUA FRANCA” OF DIPLOMACY IN JAPANESE–KOREAN ENCOUNTERS, c. 1600–1868’, The Historical Journal, 62(2), pp. 289–309. Available at:
  • Cornut, J. and de Zamaróczy, N. (2021) ‘How can documents speak about practices? Practice tracing, the Wikileaks cables, and diplomatic culture’, Cooperation and Conflict, 56(3), pp. 328–345. Available at:
  • Der Derian, J. (1993) ‘Anti‐diplomacy, intelligence theory and surveillance practice’, Intelligence and National Security, 8(3), pp. 29–51. Available at:
  • Dittmer, J. and McConnell, F. (eds) (2016) Diplomatic cultures and international politics: translations, spaces and alternatives. London ; New York, NY :b Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business (Routledge new diplomacy studies).
  • Essex, J., Stokes, L. and Yusibov, I. (2019) ‘Geographies of diplomatic labor: Institutional culture, state work, and Canada’s foreign service’, Political Geography, 72, pp. 10–19. Available at:
  • Graham, S.E. (2006) ‘The (Real)politiks of Culture: U.S. Cultural Diplomacy in Unesco, 1946-1954’, Diplomatic History, 30(2), pp. 231–251. Available at:
  • Griffin, M. (2009) ‘Narrative, Culture, and Diplomacy’, The Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society, 38(4), pp. 258–269. Available at:
  • Haacke, J. (2003) ‘ASEAN’s diplomatic and security culture: a constructivist assessment’, International Relations of the Asia-Pacific, 3(1), pp. 57–87. Available at:
  • Hadano, T. (2020) ‘Multipolarity and the Future of Multilateralism: Towards “Thick” Peacekeeping in the Donbas Conflict’, Global Policy, 11(2), pp. 212–221. Available at:
  • Hall, I. (2006) ‘Diplomacy, Anti-diplomacy and International Society’, in R. Little and J. Williams (eds) The Anarchical Society in a Globalized World. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 141–161. Available at:
  • Iriye, A. (1979) ‘Culture and Power: International Relations as Intercultural Relations’, Diplomatic History, 3(2), pp. 115–128. Available at:
  • Iwabuchi, K. (2015) ‘Pop-culture diplomacy in Japan: soft power, nation branding and the question of “international cultural exchange”’, International Journal of Cultural Policy, 21(4), pp. 419–432. Available at:
  • Kuus, M. (2015) ‘Symbolic power in diplomatic practice: Matters of style in Brussels’, Cooperation and Conflict, 50(3), pp. 368–384. Available at:
  • Lee, K.S. (2018) ‘The Making of a Nation’s Citizen Diplomats: Culture-learning in International Volunteer Training Program’, Journal of Contemporary Eastern Asia, 17(1), pp. 94–111. Available at:
  • Lorrillard, C.D. (2022) ‘Breaking Protocol: America’s First Female Ambassadors, 1933-1964, written by Philip Nash’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, pp. 1–4. Available at:
  • Mänd, A. (2016) ‘HORSES, STAGS AND BEAVERS: ANIMALS AS PRESENTS IN LATE-MEDIEVAL LIVONIA; pp. 3–17’, Acta Historica Tallinnensia, 22(1), p. 3. Available at:
  • May, E.T. (1994) ‘Commentary: Ideology and Foreign Policy: Culture and Gender in Diplomatic History’, Diplomatic History, 18(1), pp. 71–78. Available at:
  • Neumann, I.B. (2002) ‘Returning Practice to the Linguistic Turn: The Case of Diplomacy’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 31(3), pp. 627–651. Available at:
  • Neumann, I.B. (2010) ‘Sustainability and Transformation in Diplomatic Culture: The Case of Eurocentrism’, in C.M. Constantinou and J. Der Derian (eds) Sustainable Diplomacies. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 128–147. Available at:
  • Nye, J.S. (2019) ‘Soft Power and Public Diplomacy Revisited’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 14(1–2), pp. 7–20. Available at:
  • Radway, R.D. (2018) ‘The Captive Self: The Art of Intrigue and the Holy Roman Emperor’s Resident Ambassador at the Ottoman Court in the Sixteenth Century’, Journal of Early Modern History, 22(6), pp. 475–499. Available at:
  • Royles, E. (2016) ‘Substate Diplomacy, Culture, and Wales: Investigating a Historical Institutionalist Approach’, Publius: The Journal of Federalism, 46(2), pp. 224–247. Available at:
  • Schneider, C.P. (2005) ‘Culture Communicates: US Diplomacy That Works’, in J. Melissen (ed.) The New Public Diplomacy. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 147–168. Available at:
  • Scott, H. (2007) ‘Diplomatic culture in old regime Europe’, in H. Scott and B. Simms (eds) Cultures of Power in Europe during the Long Eighteenth Century. 1st edn. Cambridge University Press, pp. 58–85. Available at:
  • Sowerby, T.A. (2014) ‘“A Memorial and a Pledge of Faith”: Portraiture and Early Modern Diplomatic Culture’, The English Historical Review, 129(537), pp. 296–331. Available at:
  • Sowerby, T.A. (2021) ‘Early modern queens consort and dowager and diplomatic gifts’, Women’s History Review, 30(5), pp. 723–737. Available at:
  • Sysiö, T. (2022) ‘Assembling a Geography of Diplomatic Sociability: The Case of Finland’s Sauna Diplomacy’, The Professional Geographer, 74(2), pp. 304–313. Available at:
  • Taufik, K.K. (2017) ‘Indonesia’s Environmental Diplomacy under Yudhoyono: A Critical–Institutionalist–Constructivist Analysis’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 12(1), pp. 1–26. Available at:
  • Taylor, K. (2018) ‘Making Statesmen, Writing Culture: Ethnography, Observation, and Diplomatic Travel in Early Modern Venice’, Journal of Early Modern History, 22(4), pp. 279–298. Available at:
  • Tekines, M.H. (2022) ‘China’s Civilian Army: The Making of Wolf Warrior Diplomacy’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, pp. 1–4. Available at:
  • Wiseman, G. (2005) ‘Pax Americana: Bumping into Diplomatic Culture’, International Studies Perspectives, 6(4), pp. 409–430. Available at:
  • Wiseman, G. (2011) ‘Distinctive Characteristics of American Diplomacy’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 6(3–4), pp. 235–259. Available at:

Lecture 6: Negotiations and Talks I.

Core Required Reading

  1. Berridge, G.R. (2022) Diplomacy: Theory and Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  • The Foreign Ministry
  • Prenegotiations
  • ‘Around-the-Table’ Negotiations
  1. Hutchings, R. and Suri, J. (eds) (2020) Modern Diplomacy in Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  • India

Recommended Reading

  • ‘Naval Armaments. Memorandum on the negotiations with France and Italy for the reduction and limitation of naval armaments, Feb.–March 1931, Prisoners of War, Etc. International convention for the amelioration of the condition of the wounded and sick in armies in the field, Prisoners of War, Etc. International convention relative to the treatment of prisoners of war, Geneva, July 27, 1929 and Prisoners of War, Etc. Final act of the conference regarding wounded and sick in armies in the field and the treatment of prisoners of war’ (1931) International Affairs, 10(3), pp. 395–396. Available at:
  • Anderson, C. (2016) ‘Material Mediators: Johan Maurits, Textiles, and the Art of Diplomatic Exchange’, Journal of Early Modern History, 20(1), pp. 63–85. Available at:
  • Bachleitner, K. (2019) ‘Diplomacy with Memory: How the Past Is Employed for Future Foreign Policy’, Foreign Policy Analysis, 15(4), pp. 492–508. Available at:
  • Bayram, A.B. and Ta, V. (2018) ‘Diplomatic Chameleons: Language Style Matching and Agreement in International Diplomatic Negotiations’. Available at:
  • Bély, L. (2021) ‘Women in Diplomacy: The Ambassadress Seen by Friedrich Carl von Moser’, The International History Review, pp. 1–14. Available at:
  • Blume, K.J. (2020) ‘Preparing the South Pacific for U.S. Influence: The uss Narragansett in Samoa, 1872’, Journal of American-East Asian Relations, 27(1), pp. 7–28. Available at:
  • Burman, J. (2009) ‘British Strategic Interests versus Ottoman Sovereign Rights: New Perspectives on the Aqaba Crisis, 1906’, The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 37(2), pp. 275–292. Available at:
  • Cheng, Y. (2015) ‘Coping with parallel authorities: the early diplomatic negotiations of Soviet Russia and China on the Chinese Eastern Railway, 1917–1925’, Journal of Modern Chinese History, 9(2), pp. 223–243. Available at:
  • Cromwell, V. (1971) ‘The Foreign Office and Foreign Policy, 1898–1914 and Entente Cordiale: The Origins and Negotiations of the Anglo-French Agreements of April 8, 1904’, International Affairs, 47(1), pp. 108–109. Available at:
  • de Jonge, D. et al. (2019) ‘The Challenge of Negotiation in the Game of Diplomacy’, in M. Lujak (ed.) Agreement Technologies. Cham: Springer International Publishing (Lecture Notes in Computer Science), pp. 100–114. Available at:
  • Faizullaev, A. (2014) ‘Diplomatic Interactions and Negotiations: Diplomatic Interactions and Negotiations’, Negotiation Journal, 30(3), pp. 275–299. Available at:
  • Gellner, M. (1960) ‘The European Common Market and Free Trade Area (A Progress Report), The First Year of the European Economic Community, The Free Trade Area Negotiations, The Free Trade Area Negotiations and The European Free Trade Association: A Preliminary Appraisal’, International Affairs, 36(1), pp. 103–104. Available at:
  • Hindley, B. (1995) ‘GATT negotiations and the political economy of policy reform’, International Affairs, 71(4), pp. 856–857. Available at:
  • Kelly, J.B. (1977) ‘The First Kuwait Oil Concession Agreement: A Record of the Negotiations 1911–1934’, International Affairs, 53(4), pp. 703–705. Available at:
  • Krasna, J. (2021) ‘The star and the scepter: a diplomatic history of Israel’, International Affairs, 97(4), pp. 1270–1272. Available at:
  • Larsson, T. (2007) ‘Intertextual relations: The geopolitics of land rights in Thailand’, Political Geography, 26(7), pp. 775–803. Available at:
  • Laura, O.S. (2017) ‘Gender, Work and Diplomacy in Baroque Spain: The Ambassadorial Couples of the Holy Roman Empire as Arbeitspaare: The Ambassadorial Couples of the Holy Roman Empire as Arbeitspaare’, Gender & History, 29(2), pp. 423–445. Available at:
  • Leino, P. (2017) ‘Secrecy, Efficiency, Transparency in EU Negotiations: Conflicting Paradigms?’, Politics and Governance, 5(3), pp. 6–15. Available at:
  • Liebes, T., Kampf, Z. and Blum-Kulka, S. (2008) ‘Saddam on CBS and Arafat on IBA Interviewing the Enemy on Television’, Political Communication, 25(3), pp. 311–329. Available at:
  • Mercan, F.Ö. (2019) ‘A Struggle for Survival: Genoese Diplomacy with the Sublime Porte in the Face of Spanish and French Opposition’, Journal of Early Modern History, 23(6), pp. 542–565. Available at:
  • Montcher, F. (2018) ‘The Portable Archives of the Westphalian Negotiations: From Archival Arsenals to Archival Absolutism (France, Portugal, and Spain)’, Journal of Early Modern History, 22(5), pp. 348–370. Available at:
  • Nailor, P. (1974) ‘The Rationale for NATO: European collective security—past and future, American Arms and a Changing Europe: Dilemmas of deterrence and disarmament and Era of Negotiations: European Security and Force Reductions’, International Affairs, 50(4), pp. 618–619. Available at:
  • Neumann, I.B. (2017) At Home with the Diplomats: Inside a European Foreign Ministry. Cornell University Press. Available at:
  • O’Halloran, E.M.B. (2021) ‘India, the Arabs, and Britain’s Problem In Palestine, 1937-1939’, The International History Review, 43(3), pp. 547–566. Available at:
  • Onderco, M. (2018) ‘Parliamentarians in government delegations: An old question still not answered’, Cooperation and Conflict, 53(3), pp. 411–428. Available at:
  • Özden Mercan, F. (2020) ‘A diplomacy woven with textiles: Medici-Ottoman relations during the late Renaissance’, Mediterranean Historical Review, 35(2), pp. 169–188. Available at:
  • Pigeon, É. and Podruchny, C. (2022) ‘Bannock Diplomacy: How Métis Women Fought Battles and Made Peace in North Dakota, 1850s–1870s’, Ethnohistory, 69(1), pp. 29–52. Available at:
  • Planas, N. (2015) ‘Diplomacy from Below or Cross-Confessional Loyalty? The “Christians of Algiers” between the Lord of Kuko and the King of Spain in the Early 1600s’, Journal of Early Modern History, 19(2–3), pp. 153–173. Available at:
  • Roehrlich, E. (2018) ‘Negotiating Verification: International Diplomacy and the Evolution of Nuclear Safeguards, 1945–1972’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 29(1), pp. 29–50. Available at:
  • Rosenthal, S. (2022) ‘Israel’s Armor: The Israel Lobby and the First Generation of the Palestine Conflict’, Journal of American History, 108(4), pp. 871–872. Available at:
  • Ruane, A.E. (2006) ‘“Real Men” and Diplomats: Intercultural Diplomatic Negotiation and Masculinities in China and the United States’, International Studies Perspectives, 7(4), pp. 342–359. Available at:
  • Saam, N.J. and Sumpter, D. (2009) ‘Peer selection in EU intergovernmental negotiations’, Journal of European Public Policy, 16(3), pp. 356–377. Available at:
  • Simonelli, N.M. (2011) ‘Bargaining over International Multilateral Agreements: The Duration of Negotiations’, International Interactions, 37(2), pp. 147–169. Available at:
  • Weller, M. (2008) ‘The Vienna negotiations on the final status for Kosovo’, International Affairs, 84(4), pp. 659–681. Available at:
  • Wilkinson, R. (2009) ‘Language, power and multilateral trade negotiations’, Review of International Political Economy, 16(4), pp. 597–619. Available at:
  • Wivel, A. and Grøn, C.H. (2021) ‘Charismatic leadership in foreign policy’, International Affairs, 97(2), pp. 365–383. Available at:

Lecture 7: Negotiations and Talks II.

Core Required Reading

  1. Berridge, G.R. (2022) Diplomacy: Theory and Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  • Diplomatic Momentum
  • Packaging Agreements
  • Following Up
  1. Hutchings, R. and Suri, J. (eds) (2020) Modern Diplomacy in Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  • Japan

Recommended Reading

  • ‘East Africa. Report of the East African Guaranteed Loan Committee appointed by the Secretary of State for the Colonies, 1926–29, Egypt. Papers regarding the recent negotiations for an Anglo-Egyptian settlement, March 31-May 8, 1930, South Africa and Portugal. Convention between the Union of South Africa and the Portuguese Republic regarding native labour from Mozambique, railway matters and commercial intercourse, Pretoria, September 11, 1928 and Complex South Africa: an economic foot-note to history’ (1930) International Affairs [Preprint]. Available at:
  • Abrams, M. (1956) ‘How Communists Negotiate’, International Affairs, 32(3), pp. 331–332. Available at:
  • Adams, D.K. (1984) ‘The secret diplomacy of the Vietnam War: the negotiating volumes of the Pentagon Papers and Lyndon Johnson and Vietnam: the unmaking of a President’, International Affairs, 60(3), pp. 533–534. Available at:
  • Albin, C. (1996) ‘Elusive peace: negotiating an end to civil wars’, International Affairs, 72(3), pp. 563–564. Available at:
  • Bailey, R. (1958) ‘Negotiations for Benelux: An Annotated Chronicle 1943–1956’, International Affairs, 34(2), pp. 227–228. Available at:
  • Barman, T. (1963) ‘Negotiation from Strength: A Study in the Politics of Power, Against the Cold War: A Study of Asian-African policies since World War II, The Cold War: Retrospect and Prospect and Nations in Alliance: The Limits of Interdependence’, International Affairs, 39(2), pp. 277–279. Available at:
  • Barman, T. (1968) ‘Major Controversies of Contemporary History, Modern International Negotiation: Principles and Practice and The Summit Conferences 1919–1960’, International Affairs, 44(1), pp. 80–82. Available at:
  • Buzan, B. (1979) ‘The Seabed Arms Control Negotiations: A Study of Multilateral Arms Control Conference Diplomacy’, International Affairs, 55(3), pp. 444–445. Available at:
  • Camacho, J.A. (1978) ‘Cuban Economic Policy and Ideology: The Ten Million Ton Sugar Harvest, Cuba in the 1970s: Pragmatism and Institutionalization, On Negotiating with Cuba and Castroism and Communism in Latin America, 1959–1976: The Varieties of Marxist-Leninist Experience’, International Affairs, 54(1), pp. 185–186. Available at:
  • Camps, M. (1965) ‘Trade Agreements and the Kennedy Round: An Analysis of the Economic, Legal and Political Aspects of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 and the Prospects for the Kennedy Round of Tariff Negotiations and Agricultural Protection and Trade: Proposals for an International Policy’, International Affairs, 41(3), pp. 528–529. Available at:
  • Cournoyer, J. (2021) ‘Negotiating the New START Treaty’, International Affairs, 97(6), pp. 2021–2023. Available at:
  • Dumper, M. (1992) ‘The road not taken: early Arab-Israeli negotiations’, International Affairs, 68(4), pp. 774–774. Available at:
  • Fisk, R. (1996) ‘Secret channels: the inside story of Arab—Israeli peace negotiations’, International Affairs, 72(4), pp. 845–845. Available at:
  • Freedman, L. (1978) ‘Arms Control and European Security: A Guide to East-West Negotiations’, International Affairs, 54(3), pp. 467–468. Available at:
  • Freedman, L. (1986) ‘A game for high stakes: lessons learned in negotiating with the Soviet Union’, International Affairs, 63(1), pp. 108–108. Available at:
  • Gent, M. (1987) ‘Futile diplomacy. Vol. 2: Arab-Zionist negotiations and the end of the Mandate’, International Affairs, 63(2), pp. 334–335. Available at:
  • Grieve, M.J. (1974) ‘Terms of Entry: Britain’s Negotiations with the European Community, 1970–1972’, International Affairs, 50(2), pp. 297–298. Available at:
  • Halliday, F. (1993) ‘Untying the Afghan knot: negotiating Soviet withdrawal’, International Affairs, 69(1), pp. 121–121. Available at:
  • Herring, E. (1991) ‘The Soviet Union and arms control: negotiating strategy and tactics’, International Affairs, 67(1), pp. 183–184. Available at:
  • Howe, G. (1984) ‘The future of the European Community: Britain’s approach to the negotiations’, International Affairs, 60(2), pp. 187–192. Available at:
  • Hunkin, E. (1952) ‘Negotiating with the Russians’, International Affairs, 28(3), pp. 390–391. Available at:
  • James, A. (1987) ‘Negotiating world order: the artisanship and architecture of global diplomacy’, International Affairs, 63(3), pp. 473–473. Available at:
  • James, A. (1992) ‘International negotiation: analysis, approaches, issues’, International Affairs, 68(1), pp. 144–145. Available at:
  • Kahler, M. (2013) ‘Rising powers and global governance: negotiating change in a resilient status quo’, International Affairs, 89(3), pp. 711–729. Available at:
  • Liddell, H. (1955) ‘European Peace Treaties after World War II: Negotiations and Texts of Treaties with Italy, Bulgaria, Hungary, Rumania, and Finland’, International Affairs, 31(3), pp. 358–358. Available at:
  • Little, R. (1984) ‘Negotiating peace: war termination as a bargaining process’, International Affairs, 60(3), pp. 447–448. Available at:
  • Lyon, P. (1987) ‘Multilateral development diplomacy in UNCTAD: the lessons of group negotiations 1964–84’, International Affairs, 63(2), pp. 289–289. Available at:
  • Mayall, J. (1972) ‘The Politics of Trade Negotiations between Africa and the European Economic Community: The Weak Confront the Strong’, International Affairs, 48(3), pp. 477–478. Available at:
  • Neumann, I.B. (2007) ‘“A Speech That the Entire Ministry May Stand for,” or: Why Diplomats Never Produce Anything New’, International Political Sociology, 1(2), pp. 183–200. Available at:
  • Paterson, M. (1995) ‘Negotiating climate change: the inside story of the Rio Convention’, International Affairs, 71(3), pp. 620–620. Available at:
  • Schneiker, A. (2021) ‘The UN and women’s marginalization in peace negotiations’, International Affairs, 97(4), pp. 1165–1182. Available at:
  • Scott, R. (1962) ‘A Ban on Nuclear Tests’, International Affairs, 38(4), pp. 501–510. Available at:
  • Shlaim, A. (1984) ‘Documents on the foreign policy of Israel. Vol. 3: armistice negotiations with the Arab states, December 1948–July 1949’, International Affairs, 60(2), pp. 343–344. Available at:
  • Smith, J. (1995) ‘Negotiating for entry: the accession of Greece to the European Community’, International Affairs, 71(4), pp. 880–880. Available at:
  • Smith, S. (1990) ‘Success and failure in arms control negotiations’, International Affairs, 66(2), pp. 363–364. Available at:
  • Sobeslavsky, V. (1980) ‘Soviet-American Trade Negotiations’, International Affairs, 56(2), pp. 379–380. Available at:
  • Thorndike, T. (1989) ‘Power and tactics in international negotiations: how weak nations bargain with strong nations’, International Affairs, 65(4), pp. 695–696. Available at:
  • Treharne Jones, W. (1975) ‘Agreement on Berlin: A study of the 1970–72 quadripartite negotiations and Weltstadt in Krisen: Berlin 1949–1958’, International Affairs, 51(4), pp. 580–581. Available at:
  • Weiss, T.G. (1983) ‘The United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries: the relevance of conference diplomacy in Paris for international negotiations’, International Affairs, 59(4), pp. 649–675. Available at:
  • Yahuda, M. (1993) ‘Hong Kong’s future: Sino-British negotiations, perceptions, organization and political culture’, International Affairs, 69(2), pp. 245–266. Available at:

Lecture 8: Communication and Intelligence

Core Required Reading

  1. Berridge, G.R. (2022) Diplomacy: Theory and Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  • Embassies
  • Telecommunications
  • Consulates
  • Secret Intelligence
  1. Hutchings, R. and Suri, J. (eds) (2020) Modern Diplomacy in Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  • Russia

Recommended Reading

  • Adamthwaite, A. (1995) ‘Intelligence, defence and diplomacy: British diplomacy in the post-war world’, International Affairs, 71(3), pp. 627–627. Available at:
  • Alexander, M.S. (1991) ‘Safes and houses: William C. Bullitt, embassy security and the shortcomings of the US foreign service in Europe before the second world war’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 2(2), pp. 187–210. Available at:
  • Andrew, C. (1977) ‘Whitehall, Washington and the Intelligence Services’, International Affairs, 53(3), pp. 390–404. Available at:
  • Barman, T. (1968) ‘The Craft of Diplomacy: Mechanics and Development of National Representation Overseas and The Quest for Peace through Diplomacy’, International Affairs, 44(2), pp. 304–305. Available at:
  • Baxter, C. (2008) ‘Forgeries and Spies: The Foreign Office and the “Cicero” Case’, Intelligence and National Security, 23(6), pp. 807–826. Available at:
  • Best, A. (2002) ‘Intelligence, diplomacy and the Japanese threat to British interests, 1914–41’, Intelligence and National Security, 17(1), pp. 85–100. Available at:
  • Boyer, M.A. (2000) ‘Issue definition and two‐level negotiations: An application to the American foreign policy process’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 11(2), pp. 185–212. Available at:
  • Constantinou, C.M. (1995) ‘Talking to the enemy: how states without “diplomatic relations” communicate’, International Affairs, 71(1), pp. 136–137. Available at:
  • Davies, G.A.M. and Johns, R. (2012) ‘British Public Confidence in MI6 and Government Use of Intelligence: The Effect on Support for Preventive Military Action’, Intelligence and National Security, 27(5), pp. 669–688. Available at:
  • Drabkin, R., Kusunoki, K. and Hart, B.W. (2022) ‘Agents, attachés, and intelligence failures: The Imperial Japanese Navy’s efforts to establish espionage networks in the United States before Pearl Harbor’, Intelligence and National Security, pp. 1–17. Available at:
  • Easter, D. (2016) ‘Soviet Bloc and Western Bugging of Opponents’ Diplomatic Premises During the Early Cold War’, Intelligence and National Security, 31(1), pp. 28–48. Available at:
  • Fiore, M. (2022) ‘Rome confidential: deception and espionage in the British Embassy’, Intelligence and National Security, pp. 1–11. Available at:
  • Gentry, J.A. (2021) ‘Diplomatic Spying: How Useful Is It?’, International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 34(3), pp. 432–462. Available at:
  • Gold, P. (2004) ‘Sovereignty Negotiations and Gibraltar’s Military Facilities: How Two “Red-Line” Issues Became Three’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 15(2), pp. 375–384. Available at:
  • Harvey, H.J. (1947) ‘Canadian Representation Abroad. From Agency to Embassy’, International Affairs, 23(1), pp. 101–101. Available at:
  • Herman, M. (1998) ‘Diplomacy and intelligence’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 9(2), pp. 1–22. Available at:
  • Holthaus, L. and Steffek, J. (2016) ‘Experiments in international administration: The forgotten functionalism of James Arthur Salter’, Review of International Studies, 42(1), pp. 114–135. Available at:
  • Karabell, Z. (1993) ‘“Inside the US espionage den”: The US embassy and the fall of the Shah’, Intelligence and National Security, 8(1), pp. 44–59. Available at:
  • Kennedy, A.L. and Willson, B. (1927) ‘The Paris Embassy: A Narrative of Franco-British Diplomatic Relations, 1814-1920.’, Journal of the Royal Institute of International Affairs, 6(4), p. 255. Available at:
  • Lockhart, R.B. (1962) ‘National Character in Action: Intelligence Factors in Foreign Relations’, International Affairs, 38(2), pp. 225–225. Available at:
  • Lombardo, J.R. (1999) ‘A mission of espionage, intelligence and psychological operations: The American consulate in Hong Kong, 1949–64’, Intelligence and National Security, 14(4), pp. 64–81. Available at:
  • MacRae, M. (1989) ‘London’s standing in international diplomacy’, International Affairs, 65(3), pp. 501–512. Available at:
  • Melissen, J. and Fernández, A.M. (eds) (2011) ‘Chapter Four. Consular Affairs In An Integrated Europe’, in Consular Affairs and Diplomacy. Brill | Nijhoff, pp. 97–114. Available at:
  • Melissen, J. and Fernández, A.M. (eds) (2011) ‘Introduction The Consular Dimension Of Diplomacy’, in Consular Affairs and Diplomacy. Brill | Nijhoff, pp. 1–17. Available at:
  • Molander, P. (2007) ‘Intelligence, Diplomacy and the Swedish Dilemma: The Special Operations Executive in Neutral Sweden, 1939–45’, Intelligence and National Security, 22(5), pp. 722–744. Available at:
  • Munton, D. and Matejova, M. (2012) ‘Spies without Borders? Western Intelligence Liaison, the Tehran Hostage Affair and Iran’s Islamic Revolution’, Intelligence and National Security, 27(5), pp. 739–760. Available at:
  • Newsom, D.D. (1988) ‘The new diplomatic agenda: are governments ready?’, International Affairs, 65(1), pp. 29–42. Available at:
  • O’Connell, B. (2020) ‘Underground alliances and preventive strikes: British intelligence and secret diplomacy during the Napoleonic Wars, 1807-1810’, Intelligence and National Security, 35(2), pp. 179–196. Available at:
  • Saliceti, A.I. (2011) ‘The Protection of EU Citizens Abroad: Accountability, Rule of Law, Role of Consular and Diplomatic Services’, European Public Law, 17(Issue 1), pp. 91–109. Available at:
  • Scott, L. (2004) ‘Secret Intelligence, Covert Action and Clandestine Diplomacy’, Intelligence and National Security, 19(2), pp. 322–341. Available at:
  • Setton, G. and Rein, R. (2015) ‘Is an Embassy Really Necessary? Israeli–Spanish Relations in the 1960s’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 26(4), pp. 678–695. Available at:
  • Shiraz, Z. (2020) ‘Diplomats Under Siege: The M-19 and the Dominican Embassy Takeover of 1980’, The International History Review, 42(5), pp. 1048–1066. Available at:
  • Shpiro, S. (2011) ‘KGB Human Intelligence Operations in Israel 1948–73’, Intelligence and National Security, 26(6), pp. 864–885. Available at:
  • Tooze, R. (1977) ‘The progress of international functionalism’, British Journal of International Studies, 3(2), pp. 210–217. Available at:
  • Trevelyan, H. (1977) ‘The Diplomats: The Foreign Office Today’, International Affairs, 53(4), pp. 679–681. Available at:
  • Uilenreef, A. (2014) ‘Alternatives to the Resident Embassy: Intra-EU Diplomatic Networks in the Twenty-first Century’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 25(2), pp. 356–377. Available at:
  • Wilford, H. (1998) ‘The Information Research Department: Britain’s secret Cold War weapon revealed’, Review of International Studies, 24(3), pp. 353–369. Available at:
  • Wolfe, R. (1998) ‘Still lying abroad? On the institution of the resident ambassador’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 9(2), pp. 23–54. Available at:

Lecture 9: Public Diplomacy

Core Required Reading

  1. Berridge, G.R. (2022) Diplomacy: Theory and Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  • Conferences
  • Summits
  • Public Diplomacy
  1. Hutchings, R. and Suri, J. (eds) (2020) Modern Diplomacy in Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  • Turkey

Recommended Reading

  • Abel, J.R. (2012) ‘Japan’s Sporting Diplomacy: The 1964 Tokyo Olympiad’, The International History Review, 34(2), pp. 203–220. Available at:
  • Adler-Nissen, R. and Tsinovoi, A. (2019) ‘International misrecognition: The politics of humour and national identity in Israel’s public diplomacy’, European Journal of International Relations, 25(1), pp. 3–29. Available at:
  • Ayhan, K.J. (2019) ‘The Boundaries of Public Diplomacy and Nonstate Actors: A Taxonomy of Perspectives’, International Studies Perspectives, 20(1), pp. 63–83. Available at:
  • Bjola, C., Cassidy, J. and Manor, I. (2019) ‘Public Diplomacy in the Digital Age’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 14(1–2), pp. 83–101. Available at:
  • Bos, M. and Melissen, J. (2019) ‘Rebel diplomacy and digital communication: public diplomacy in the Sahel’, International Affairs, 95(6), pp. 1331–1348. Available at:
  • Burt, S. (2018) ‘High and Low Tide: Sino–American Relations and Summit Diplomacy in the Second World War’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 29(2), pp. 167–186. Available at:
  • Byrne, C. and Hall, R. (2013) ‘Realising Australia’s international education as public diplomacy’, Australian Journal of International Affairs, 67(4), pp. 419–438. Available at:
  • Cowan, G. and Arsenault, A. (2008) ‘Moving from Monologue to Dialogue to Collaboration: The Three Layers of Public Diplomacy’, The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 616(1), pp. 10–30. Available at:
  • Entman, R.M. (2008) ‘Theorizing Mediated Public Diplomacy: The U.S. Case’, The International Journal of Press/Politics, 13(2), pp. 87–102. Available at:
  • Faizullaev, A. and Cornut, J. (2017) ‘Narrative practice in international politics and diplomacy: the case of the Crimean crisis’, Journal of International Relations and Development, 20(3), pp. 578–604. Available at:
  • Feklyunina, V. (2016) ‘Soft power and identity: Russia, Ukraine and the “Russian world(s)”’, European Journal of International Relations, 22(4), pp. 773–796. Available at:
  • Gilboa, E. (2008) ‘Searching for a Theory of Public Diplomacy’, The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 616(1), pp. 55–77. Available at:
  • Goldsmith, B.E. and Horiuchi, Y. (2009) ‘Spinning the Globe? U.S. Public Diplomacy and Foreign Public Opinion’, The Journal of Politics, 71(3), pp. 863–875. Available at:
  • Graham, S.E. (2014) ‘Emotion and Public Diplomacy: Dispositions in International Communications, Dialogue, and Persuasion’, International Studies Review, 16(4), pp. 522–539. Available at:
  • Grix, J. (2013) ‘Sport Politics and the Olympics’, Political Studies Review, 11(1), pp. 15–25. Available at:
  • Groom, A.J.R. (2013) Conference Diplomacy. Oxford University Press. Available at:
  • Hall, I. and Smith, F. (2013) ‘The Struggle for Soft Power in Asia: Public Diplomacy and Regional Competition’, Asian Security, 9(1), pp. 1–18. Available at:
  • Handelman, S. (2012) ‘Two Complementary Settings of Peace-making Diplomacy: Political-Elite Diplomacy and Public Diplomacy’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 23(1), pp. 162–178. Available at:
  • Hartig, F. (2016) ‘How China Understands Public Diplomacy: The Importance of National Image for National Interests’, International Studies Review, p. viw007. Available at:
  • Hoffman, D. (2002) ‘Beyond Public Diplomacy’, Foreign Affairs, 81(2), p. 83. Available at:
  • Kaufmann, J. (1996) ‘Conference Diplomats: Requirements and Characteristics’, in Kaufmann, J., Conference Diplomacy. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 117–127. Available at:
  • Kragh, M. and Åsberg, S. (2017) ‘Russia’s strategy for influence through public diplomacy and active measures: the Swedish case’, Journal of Strategic Studies, 40(6), pp. 773–816. Available at:
  • Malone, G.D. (1985) ‘Managing Public Diplomacy’, The Washington Quarterly, 8(3), pp. 199–213. Available at:
  • Matveev, V. (2000) ‘Summit diplomacy of the seventeenth century: William III and Peter I in Utrecht and London, 1697–98’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 11(3), pp. 29–48. Available at:
  • Melissen, J. (1996) ‘Pre‐summit diplomacy: Britain, the United States and the Nassau conference, December 1962’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 7(3), pp. 652–687. Available at:
  • Mor, B.D. (2007) ‘The rhetoric of public diplomacy and propaganda wars: A view from self-presentation theory’, European Journal of Political Research, 46(5), pp. 661–683. Available at:
  • Mor, B.D. (2012) ‘Credibility talk in public diplomacy’, Review of International Studies, 38(2), pp. 393–422. Available at:
  • Nisbet, E.C. et al. (2004) ‘Public Diplomacy, Television News, and Muslim Opinion’, Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 9(2), pp. 11–37. Available at:
  • Nye, J.S. (2008) ‘Public Diplomacy and Soft Power’, The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 616(1), pp. 94–109. Available at:
  • Peterson, P.G. (2002) ‘Public Diplomacy and the War on Terrorism’, Foreign Affairs, 81(5), p. 74. Available at:
  • Proedrou, F. and Frangonikolopoulos, C. (2012) ‘Refocusing Public Diplomacy: The Need for Strategic Discursive Public Diplomacy’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 23(4), pp. 728–745. Available at:
  • Riitberger, V. (1983) ‘Global Conference Diplomacy and International Policy-Making: The Case of UN-Sponsored World Conferences*’, European Journal of Political Research, 11(2), pp. 167–182. Available at:
  • Schatz, E. and Levine, R. (2010) ‘Framing, Public Diplomacy, and Anti-Americanism in Central Asia: Anti-Americanism in Central Asia’, International Studies Quarterly, 54(3), pp. 855–869. Available at:
  • Sheafer, T. and Gabay, I. (2009) ‘Mediated Public Diplomacy: A Strategic Contest over International Agenda Building and Frame Building’, Political Communication, 26(4), pp. 447–467. Available at:
  • van Ham, P. (2003) ‘War, Lies, and Videotape: Public Diplomacy and the USA’s War on Terrorism’, Security Dialogue, 34(4), pp. 427–444. Available at:
  • Wang, Y. (2008) ‘Public Diplomacy and the Rise of Chinese Soft Power’, The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 616(1), pp. 257–273. Available at:
  • Wastnidge, E. (2015) ‘The Modalities of Iranian Soft Power: From Cultural Diplomacy to Soft War’, Politics, 35(3–4), pp. 364–377. Available at:
  • Yablokov, I. (2015) ‘Conspiracy Theories as a Russian Public Diplomacy Tool: The Case of Russia Today ( RT )’, Politics, 35(3–4), pp. 301–315. Available at:
  • Zhao, K. (2015) ‘The Motivation Behind China’s Public Diplomacy’, The Chinese Journal of International Politics, 8(2), pp. 167–196. Available at:

Lecture 10: Absence of Diplomatic Relations

Core Required Reading

  1. Berridge, G.R. (2022) Diplomacy: Theory and Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  • Embassy Substitutes
  1. Hutchings, R. and Suri, J. (eds) (2020) Modern Diplomacy in Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  • United Kingdom

Recommended Reading

  • Abbas Zadeh, Y. and Kirmanj, S. (2017) ‘The Para-Diplomacy of the Kurdistan Region in Iraq and the Kurdish Statehood Enterprise’, The Middle East Journal, 71(4), pp. 587–606. Available at:
  • Aguirre, I. (1999) ‘Making sense of paradiplomacy? An intertextual enquiry about a concept in search of a definition’, Regional & Federal Studies, 9(1), pp. 185–209. Available at:
  • Atkinson, J. (2010) ‘China–Taiwan diplomatic competition and the Pacific Islands’, The Pacific Review, 23(4), pp. 407–427. Available at:
  • Bartmann, B. (2006) ‘In or out: Sub-national island jurisdictions and the antechamber of para-diplomacy’, The Round Table, 95(386), pp. 541–559. Available at:
  • Bell, M. (1999) ‘A Bilateral Dialogue Regime: US-Vietnamese Relations after the Fall of Saigon’, in J. Melissen (ed.) Innovation in Diplomatic Practice. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 195–213. Available at:
  • Bridges, B. (1983) ‘Occupation diplomacy: Britain, the United States and Japan, 1945–1952’, International Affairs, 59(4), pp. 748–749. Available at:
  • Cornago, N. (1999) ‘Diplomacy and paradiplomacy in the redefinition of international security: Dimensions of conflict and co‐operation’, Regional & Federal Studies, 9(1), pp. 40–57. Available at:
  • Fulton, J. and Yellinek, R. (2021) ‘UAE-Israel diplomatic normalization: a response to a turbulent Middle East region’, Comparative Strategy, 40(5), pp. 499–515. Available at:
  • Guzansky, Y. and Marshall, Z.A. (2020) ‘The Abraham Accords: Immediate Significance and Long-Term Implications’, Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs, 14(3), pp. 379–389. Available at:
  • Henig, R. (1980) ‘France’s Rhineland Diplomacy, 1914–1924: The Last Bid for a Balance of Power in Europe’, International Affairs, 56(1), pp. 144–145. Available at:
  • James, A. (1992) ‘Diplomatic Relations and Contacts’, British Yearbook of International Law, 62(1), pp. 347–387. Available at:
  • Kim, D.J. and Kim, A.I. (2022) ‘Global health diplomacy and North Korea in the COVID-19 era’, International Affairs, 98(3), pp. 915–932. Available at:
  • Maller, T. (2010) ‘Diplomacy Derailed: The Consequences of Diplomatic Sanctions’, The Washington Quarterly, 33(3), pp. 61–79. Available at:
  • McHugh, J.T. (2015) ‘Paradiplomacy, protodiplomacy and the foreign policy aspirations of Quebec and other Canadian provinces’, Canadian Foreign Policy Journal, 21(3), pp. 238–256. Available at:
  • Mengin, F. (1997) ‘Taiwan’s non‐official diplomacy’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 8(1), pp. 228–248. Available at:
  • Newland, S.A. (2022) ‘Paradiplomacy as a response to international isolation: the case of Taiwan’, The Pacific Review, pp. 1–29. Available at:
  • Omar Bali, A., Karim, M.S. and Rached, K. (2018) ‘Public Diplomacy Effort Across Facebook: A Comparative Analysis of the U.S. Consulate in Erbil and the Kurdistan Representation in Washington’, SAGE Open, 8(1), p. 215824401875883. Available at:
  • Pajtinka, E. (2017) ‘Between Diplomacy and Paradiplomacy: Taiwan’s Foreign Relations in Current Practice’, Journal of Nationalism, Memory & Language Politics, 11(1), pp. 39–57. Available at:
  • Peksen, D. (2019) ‘When Do Imposed Economic Sanctions Work? A Critical Review of the Sanctions Effectiveness Literature’, Defence and Peace Economics, 30(6), pp. 635–647. Available at:
  • Phipps, J. (1990) ‘The foreign relations of North Korea: new perspectives’, International Affairs, 66(4), pp. 851–851. Available at:
  • Schimmel, N. (2021) ‘From hope to horror: diplomacy and the making of the Rwanda genocide’, International Affairs, 97(3), pp. 910–912. Available at:
  • Sinclair, C. and Smets, K. (2014) ‘Media freedoms and covert diplomacy: Turkey challenges Europe over Kurdish broadcasts’, Global Media and Communication, 10(3), pp. 319–331. Available at:
  • Talhami, G.H. (2013) ‘Diplomacy of the Kurdish territorial nation’, International Journal of Contemporary Iraqi Studies, 7(1), pp. 21–42. Available at:
  • Wefer, C. (2020) ‘North Korea–US relations: from Kim Jong Il to Kim Jong Un’, International Affairs, 96(4), pp. 1114–1116. Available at:
  • Woodward, E.L. (1924) ‘The Diplomacy of the Vatican under Popes Pius IX and Leo XIII1’, International Affairs, 3(3), pp. 113–138. Available at:
  • Zhao, S. (2022) ‘Top-level Design and Enlarged Diplomacy: Foreign and Security Policymaking in Xi Jinping’s China’, Journal of Contemporary China, pp. 1–14. Available at:

Lecture 11: Special Diplomatic Missions

Core Required Reading

  1. Berridge, G.R. (2022) Diplomacy: Theory and Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  • Special Missions
  • Mediation
  1. Hutchings, R. and Suri, J. (eds) (2020) Modern Diplomacy in Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Available at:
  • United States

Recommended Reading

  • Acuto, M. and Rayner, S. (2016) ‘City networks: breaking gridlocks or forging (new) lock-ins?’, International Affairs, 92(5), pp. 1147–1166. Available at:
  • Barrinha, A. and Renard, T. (2020) ‘Power and diplomacy in the post-liberal cyberspace’, International Affairs, 96(3), pp. 749–766. Available at:
  • Baumann, C.E. (1973) ‘The Diplomat as Victim: Diplomatic Inviolability’, in Baumann, C. E., The Diplomatic Kidnappings. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp. 32–42. Available at:
  • Bjola, C. and Manor, I. (2022) ‘The rise of hybrid diplomacy: from digital adaptation to digital adoption’, International Affairs, 98(2), pp. 471–491. Available at:
  • Cable, J. (1991) ‘Diplomacy under a foreign flag: when nations break relations’, International Affairs, 67(4), pp. 772–772. Available at:
  • Camacho, G. (1980) ‘Good Neighbor Diplomacy: United States Policies in Latin America, 1933–1945’, International Affairs, 57(1), pp. 204–205. Available at:
  • Ercan, P.G. (2022) ‘Turkey’s water diplomacy: analysis of its foundations, challenges and prospects’, International Affairs, 98(4), pp. 1470–1471. Available at:
  • Fox, J.P. (1985) ‘The Jews were expendable: free world diplomacy and the holocaust’, International Affairs, 61(3), pp. 512–513. Available at:
  • Fullilove, M. (2005) ‘All the Presidents’ Men: The Role of Special Envoys in U.S. Foreign Policy’, Foreign Affairs, 84(2), p. 13. Available at:
  • Hemming, D., Nearing, S. and Freeman, J. (1926) ‘Dollar Diplomacy.’, Journal of the Royal Institute of International Affairs, 5(5), p. 252. Available at:
  • Kennedy, M.D. (1945) ‘Our Jungle Diplomacy’, International Affairs, 22(1), pp. 152–153. Available at:
  • Kiernan, V.G. (1986) ‘Diplomacy and strategy of survival: British policy and Franco’s Spain, 1940–41’, International Affairs, 62(4), pp. 677–677. Available at:
  • Kingdon, H.P. (1955) ‘The Catholic Church in World Affairs’, International Affairs, 31(1), pp. 77–78. Available at:
  • Malone, D.M. (2013) The Modern Diplomatic Mission. Oxford University Press. Available at:
  • Milenky, E.S. (1977) ‘Latin America’s Multilateral Diplomacy: Integration, Disintegration and Interdependence’, International Affairs, 53(1), pp. 73–96. Available at:
  • Morris, L.P. (1977) ‘British Secret Missions in Turkestan, 1918-19’, Journal of Contemporary History, 12(2), pp. 363–379. Available at:
  • Ovendale, R. (1994) ‘Nuclear diplomacy and the special relationship: Britain’s deterrent and America, 1957–1962’, International Affairs, 70(4), pp. 799–799. Available at:
  • Postema, S. (2022) ‘New perspectives on diplomacy: a new theory and practice of diplomacy; New perspectives on diplomacy: contemporary diplomacy in action’, International Affairs, 98(1), pp. 316–318. Available at:
  • Ryan, M.H. (1979) ‘The Status of Agents on Special Mission in Customary International Law’, Canadian Yearbook of international Law/Annuaire canadien de droit international, 16, pp. 157–196. Available at:
  • Spence, J. (2017) ‘Naked diplomacy: power and statecraft in the digital age and The future of #diplomacy*’, International Affairs, 93(4), pp. 973–975. Available at:
  • Spencer, F. (1965) ‘The Dimensions of Diplomacy’, International Affairs, 41(4), pp. 696–697. Available at:
  • Strange, S. (1992) ‘States, firms and diplomacy’, International Affairs, 68(1), pp. 1–15. Available at:
  • Viuda-Serrano, A. (2010) ‘A Diplomatic Mission: Spain and the 1948 London Olympics’, The International Journal of the History of Sport, 27(6), pp. 1080–1103. Available at:
  • Wagner, J. (1992) ‘Ozone diplomacy: new directions in safeguarding the planet’, International Affairs, 68(3), pp. 537–538. Available at:
  • White, G. (1969) ‘Modern Diplomatic Law and Diplomatic Privileges and Immunities’, International Affairs, 45(3), pp. 500–502. Available at:
  • Yahuda, M. (1993) ‘The end of Hong Kong: the secret diplomacy of imperial retreat’, International Affairs, 69(4), pp. 815–816. Available at:
  • Yale, W. (1949) ‘Ambassador Henry Morgenthau’s Special Mission of 1917’, World Politics, 1(3), pp. 308–320. Available at:
  • Young, J.W. (2014) ‘The United Kingdom and the Negotiation of the 1969 New York Convention on Special Missions’, The International History Review, 36(1), pp. 171–188. Available at:

Required Students’ Skills

Read the course materials carefully and focus on the core and recommended readings that will greatly increase your level of knowledge.

Learn how to use search engines for academic articles, primarily Web of Science, JSTOR, SAGE Journals, and Google Scholar.

To pass an essay assignment with flying colours, you must master the Harvard citation style. Also, it is highly recommended to read the following publication about research methods and design to improve your essay score:

  • Lamont, C. and Boduszynski, M. (2020) Research methods in politics and international relations. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.

Throughout the course, students are also expected to familiarise themselves with leading academic journals to locate the latest articles, thereby connecting with the international relations academic community.

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