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Theories of International Relations – Postgraduate Course Syllabus

Course Description

The main objective of this postgraduate course in international relations is to familiarise students with concepts embedded in theoretical approaches to international relations, to develop students’ critical thinking skills, and to assist students in refining the theoretical foundations of their dissertations.

The course provides students with the conceptual and theoretical tools to make decisions and recommendations in international relations. Decision makers inevitably use concepts and theories; However, these often remain implicit or unconscious, making it more difficult to identify inconsistencies and other issues with their rationale. The aim of the course is to provide students with the tools they need to identify, assess, challenge and refine international relations thinking throughout their professional careers.

Students will explore, compare, and debate the merits of theories through in-depth discussion in order to develop a solid understanding of the various theoretical perspectives and to determine their own theoretical preferences. In each instance, we will situate these theories within their historical context, demonstrate how they contribute to a better understanding of how international politics functions, and assess their strengths and weaknesses.

Applying the Aristotelian method of teaching, I will focus on developing both the intellectual and moral virtues of students. Intellectual virtues are character traits such as the ability to judge the truth and comprehend the nature of things, whereas moral virtues are habits of living that involve the whole person and include justice, temperance, prudence, and fortitude, which are characterised by desire and emotion.

In addition, I designed the course with the following implications in mind: to understand the diverse backgrounds of undergraduate students, to provide full support to non-native speakers in relation to academic English, and to engage the students in practical discussions and seminars. An inclusive curriculum implements policies and resources to ensure that all students are supported in their learning.

The quality of teaching, course content, and literature included reflects the advanced practice of worldwide recognised departments of politics and international relations.

Learning Objectives and Outcomes

  • Analyse and apply different theoretical approaches to understanding international relations.
  • Critically examine the causes of cooperation and conflict in international relations.
  • Construct and defend theoretically challenging arguments related to international relations.
  • Learn to think and write critically about crucial debates in IR theory and world politics.
  • Ability to distinguish between conceptualised thoughts on IR and disinformation.
  • Develop innovative ways of thinking about practical implications for international relations (cyberthreats, green politics, terrorism, deep counterfeiting, inequalities, conspiracies, etc.).

Reading Materials

The course does not have a main specific textbook. All readings were individually designed for each lecture.

Course Content

Lecture 1: What is the purpose of international relations scholarship?

Core Required Reading

  1. Adler, E. and Pouliot, V. (2011) ‘International practices’, International Theory, 3(1), pp. 1–36. Available at:
  2. Ann Tickner, J. and Tsygankov, A.P. (2008) ‘Responsible Scholarship in International Relations: A Symposium’, International Studies Review, 10(4), pp. 661–666. Available at:
  3. Booth, K. (1997) ‘Discussion: a reply to Wallace’, Review of International Studies, 23(3), pp. 371–377. Available at:
  4. Lepgold, J. (1998) ‘Is Anyone Listening? International Relations Theory and the Problem of Policy Relevance’, Political Science Quarterly, 113(1), pp. 43–62. Available at:
  5. Nicholson, M. (2000) ‘What’s the use of International Relations?’, Review of International Studies, 26(2), pp. 183–198. Available at:
  6. Wallace, W. (1996) ‘Truth and power, monks and technocrats: theory and practice in international relations’, Review of International Studies, 22(3), pp. 301–321. Available at:

Recommended Reading

  • Acharya, A. (2014) ‘Global International Relations (IR) and Regional Worlds: A New Agenda for International Studies’, International Studies Quarterly, 58(4), pp. 647–659. Available at:
  • Brown, C. (2019) Understanding international relations. 5th edition. London: Macmillan international higher Education. (Chapters: Defining International Relations, The Development of International Relations Theory in the Twentieth Century, International Relations Theory Today)
  • Chan, S. (2002) ‘On Different Types of International Relations Scholarship’, Journal of Peace Research, 39(6), pp. 747–756. Available at:
  • Goddard, S.E. and Nexon, D.H. (2005) ‘Paradigm Lost? Reassessing Theory of International Politics’, European Journal of International Relations, 11(1), pp. 9–61. Available at:
  • Knutsen, T.L. (2016) A history of International Relations Theory. Third edition. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
  • Schmidt, B.C. (2010) ‘The History of International Studies’, in Schmidt, B. C., Oxford Research Encyclopedia of International Studies. Oxford University Press. Available at:
  • Wohlforth, W.C. (1999) ‘The Stability of a Unipolar World’, International Security, 24(1), pp. 5–41. Available at:

Lecture 2: Theories of International Regimes

Core Required Reading

  1. Axelrod, R. (1980) ‘Effective Choice in the Prisoner’s Dilemma’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 24(1), pp. 3–25. Available at:
  2. Fearon, J.D. (1998) ‘Bargaining, Enforcement, and International Cooperation’, International Organization, 52(2), pp. 269–305. Available at:
  3. Grieco, J., Powell, R. and Snidal, D. (1993) ‘The Relative-Gains Problem for International Cooperation’, American Political Science Review, 87(3), pp. 729–743. Available at:
  4. Jervis, R. (1978) ‘Cooperation under the Security Dilemma’, World Politics, 30(2), pp. 167–214. Available at:
  5. Milner, H. (1991) ‘The assumption of anarchy in international relations theory: a critique’, Review of International Studies, 17(1), pp. 67–85. Available at:
  6. Powell, R. (1993) ‘Guns, Butter, and Anarchy’, American Political Science Review, 87(1), pp. 115–132. Available at:
  7. Wendt, A. (1992) ‘Anarchy is what states make of it: the social construction of power politics’, International Organization, 46(2), pp. 391–425. Available at:

Recommended Reading

  • Ashley, R.K. (1988) ‘Untying the Sovereign State: A Double Reading of the Anarchy Problematique’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 17(2), pp. 227–262. Available at:
  • Clark, I. (2009) ‘Towards an English School Theory of Hegemony’, European Journal of International Relations, 15(2), pp. 203–228. Available at:
  • David Singer, J. (1961) ‘The Level-of-Analysis Problem in International Relations’, World Politics, 14(1), pp. 77–92. Available at:
  • Donnelly, J. (2006) ‘Sovereign Inequalities and Hierarchy in Anarchy: American Power and International Society’, European Journal of International Relations, 12(2), pp. 139–170. Available at:
  • Donnelly, J. (2015) ‘The discourse of anarchy in IR’, International Theory, 7(3), pp. 393–425. Available at:
  • Gourevitch, P. (1978) ‘The second image reversed: the international sources of domestic politics’, International Organization, 32(4), pp. 881–912. Available at:
  • Grieco, J.M. (1988) ‘Anarchy and the limits of cooperation: a realist critique of the newest liberal institutionalism’, International Organization, 42(3), pp. 485–507. Available at:
  • Keohane, R.O. (2005) After hegemony: cooperation and discord in the world political economy. 1st Princeton classic ed. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press (A Princeton classic edition).
  • Lake, D.A. (1996) ‘Anarchy, hierarchy, and the variety of international relations’, International Organization, 50(1), pp. 1–33. Available at:
  • Mcconaughey, M., Musgrave, P. and Nexon, D.H. (2018) ‘Beyond anarchy: logics of political organization, hierarchy, and international structure’, International Theory, 10(2), pp. 181–218. Available at:
  • Moravcsik, A. (2000) ‘The Origins of Human Rights Regimes: Democratic Delegation in Postwar Europe’, International Organization, 54(2), pp. 217–252. Available at:
  • Oye, K.A. (ed.) (1986) Cooperation under anarchy. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.
  • Ruggie, J.G. (1982) ‘International regimes, transactions, and change: embedded liberalism in the postwar economic order’, International Organization, 36(2), pp. 379–415. Available at:
  • Spruyt, H. (2002) ‘The Origins, Development, and Possible Decline of the Modern State’, Annual Review of Political Science, 5(1), pp. 127–149. Available at:
  • Waltz, K.N. (2010) Theory of international politics. Reiss. Long Grove, Ill: Waveland Press.

Lecture 3: Agency, Structure, and the State

Core Required Reading

  1. Brown, C. (2019) Understanding international relations. 5th edition. London: Macmillan international higher Education.
  • Agency, Structure, and the State
  1. Lee, Y.-S., Heo, I. and Kim, H. (2014) ‘The role of the state as an inter-scalar mediator in globalizing liquid crystal display industry development in South Korea’, Review of International Political Economy, 21(1), pp. 102–129. Available at:
  1. Wendt, A.E. (1987) ‘The agent-structure problem in international relations theory’, International Organization, 41(3), pp. 335–370. Available at:
  2. Wight, C. (2006) Agents, Structures and International Relations: Politics as Ontology. 1st edn. Cambridge University Press. Available at:
  • The agent–structure problem: from social theory to IR theory
  • The agent–structure problem in IR theory: preliminary issues

Recommended Reading

  • Branch, J. (2011) ‘Mapping the Sovereign State: Technology, Authority, and Systemic Change’, International Organization, 65(1), pp. 1–36. Available at:
  • Evans, P.B., Rueschemeyer, D. and Skocpol, T. (eds) (1985) Bringing the State Back In. 1st edn. Cambridge University Press. Available at:
  • Hobson, J.M. (2000) The State and International Relations. 1st edn. Cambridge University Press. Available at:
  • Jackson, R.H. (1987) ‘Quasi-states, dual regimes, and neoclassical theory: International jurisprudence and the Third World’, International Organization, 41(4), pp. 519–549. Available at:
  • Jervis, R. (2017) How statesmen think: the psychology of international politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Joseph, J. (2008) ‘Hegemony and the structure-agency problem in International Relations: a scientific realist contribution’, Review of International Studies, 34(1), pp. 109–128. Available at:
  • Kurki, M. (2006) ‘Causes of a divided discipline: rethinking the concept of cause in International Relations theory’, Review of International Studies, 32(2), pp. 189–216. Available at:
  • Lebow, R.N. (2017) Avoiding war, making peace. New York, NY: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
  • Lenin, V.I. (2010) Imperialism: the highest stage of capitalism. London: Penguin.
  • Meinecke, F. (1998) Machiavellism: the doctrine of raison d’État and its place in modern history. New Brunswick, N.J: Transaction Publishers.
  • Migdal, J.S. (1988) Strong societies and weak states: state-society relations and state capabilities in the Third World. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.
  • Olson, M. (1993) ‘Dictatorship, Democracy, and Development’, American Political Science Review, 87(3), pp. 567–576. Available at:
  • Polanyi, K. (2001) The great transformation: the political and economic origins of our time. 2nd Beacon Paperback ed. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
  • Reus-Smit, C. (2011) ‘Struggles for Individual Rights and the Expansion of the International System’, International Organization, 65(2), pp. 207–242. Available at:
  • Spruyt, H. (1996) The Sovereign state and its competitors: an analysis of systems change. 2. print., and 1. paperback print. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Pr (Princeton studies in international history and politics).
  • Thies, C.G. (2005) ‘War, Rivalry, and State Building in Latin America’, American Journal of Political Science, 49(3), pp. 451–465. Available at:
  • Tilly, C. (1985) ‘War Making and State Making as Organized Crime’, in P.B. Evans, D. Rueschemeyer, and T. Skocpol (eds) Bringing the State Back In. 1st edn. Cambridge University Press, pp. 169–191. Available at:
  • Weber, M. (2013) Economy and society. volume 2: Economy and society: an outline of interpretive sociology / Max Weber ; edited by Guenther Roth and Claus Wittich ; with a new foreword by Guenther Roth. Edited by G. Roth and C. Wittich. Berkeley Los Angeles London: University of California Press.

Lecture 4: Power

Core Required Reading

  1. Baldwin, D.A. (1979) ‘Power Analysis and World Politics: New Trends versus Old Tendencies’, World Politics, 31(2), pp. 161–194. Available at:
  2. Barnett, M. and Duvall, R. (2005) ‘Power in International Politics’, International Organization, 59(01). Available at:
  3. Brown, C. (2019) Understanding international relations. 5th edition. London: Macmillan international higher Education.
  • Power and Security
  1. Guzzini, S. (2005) ‘The Concept of Power: a Constructivist Analysis’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 33(3), pp. 495–521. Available at:
  2. Morgenthau, H.J., Thompson, K.W. and Clinton, W.D. (2006) Politics among nations: the struggle for power and peace. 7th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
  • Elements of National Power
  1. Nye, J.S. (1990) ‘Soft Power’, Foreign Policy, (80), p. 153. Available at:
  2. Schmidt, B.C. (2005) ‘Competing Realist Conceptions of Power’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 33(3), pp. 523–549. Available at:

Recommended Reading

  • Allen, A. (1998) ‘Rethinking Power’, Hypatia, 13(1), pp. 21–40. Available at:
  • Baldwin, D.A. (2016) Power and international relations: a conceptual approach. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
  • Barnett, M. and Duvall, R. (eds) (2004) Power in Global Governance. 1st edn. Cambridge University Press. Available at:
  • Bourdieu, P., Thompson, J.B. and Raymond, G. (2003) Language and symbolic power. Reprinted. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press.
  • Diez, T. (2005) ‘Constructing the Self and Changing Others: Reconsidering `Normative Power Europe’’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 33(3), pp. 613–636. Available at:
  • Guzzini, S. (2013) Power, Realism and Constructivism. 0 edn. Routledge. Available at:
  • Hirschman, A.O. (2004) Exit, voice, and loyalty: responses to decline in firms, organizations, and states. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
  • Keohane, R.O. (2002) Power and governance in a partially globalized world. London ; New York: Routledge.
  • Keohane, R.O. and Nye, J.S. (1973) ‘Power and interdependence’, Survival, 15(4), pp. 158–165. Available at:
  • Krasner, S.D. (1976) ‘State Power and the Structure of International Trade’, World Politics, 28(3), pp. 317–347. Available at:
  • Lasswell, H.D. and Kaplan, A. (2014) Power and society: a framework for political inquiry. New Brunswick, N.J: Transaction Publishers.
  • Lukes, S. (2005) ‘Power and the Battle for Hearts and Minds’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 33(3), pp. 477–493. Available at:
  • Mattern, J.B. (2005) ‘Why `Soft Power’ Isn’t So Soft: Representational Force and the Sociolinguistic Construction of Attraction in World Politics’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 33(3), pp. 583–612. Available at:
  • Nye, J.S. (2004) Soft power: the means to success in world politics. 1st ed. New York: Public Affairs.
  • Parsons, C. (2016) ‘Ideas and power: four intersections and how to show them’, Journal of European Public Policy, 23(3), pp. 446–463. Available at:
  • Skidmore, D. (2015) Paradoxes of Power. 0 edn. Routledge. Available at:
  • Sterling-Folker, J. and Shinko, R.E. (2005) ‘Discourses of Power: Traversing the Realist-Postmodern Divide’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 33(3), pp. 637–664. Available at:
  • ‘TRUTH AND POWER : an interview with Michel Foucault’ (1979) Critique of Anthropology, 4(13–14), pp. 131–137. Available at:
  • Widmaier, W. (2016) ‘The power of economic ideas – through, over and in – political time: the construction, conversion and crisis of the neoliberal order in the US and UK’, Journal of European Public Policy, 23(3), pp. 338–356. Available at:
  • Zarakol, A. (2010) After Defeat: How the East Learned to Live with the West. 1st edn. Cambridge University Press. Available at:

Lecture 5: War and Peace

Core Required Reading

  1. Brown, C. (2019) Understanding international relations. 5th edition. London: Macmillan international higher Education.
  • The Balance of Power and War
  1. Clausewitz, C. von et al. (1989) On war. First paperback printing. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.
  • Book 1 – What is War?
  1. Cortright, D. (2008) Peace: A History of Movements and Ideas. 1st edn. Cambridge University Press. Available at:
  2. Galtung, J. (1969) ‘Violence, Peace, and Peace Research’, Journal of Peace Research, 6(3), pp. 167–191. Available at:
  3. Schultz, K.A. (2005) ‘The Politics of Risking Peace: Do Hawks or Doves Deliver the Olive Branch?’, International Organization, 59(01). Available at:
  4. Wæver, O. (2011) ‘Politics, security, theory’, Security Dialogue, 42(4–5), pp. 465–480. Available at:
  5. Walt, S.M. (1985) ‘Alliance Formation and the Balance of World Power’, International Security, 9(4), p. 3. Available at:

Recommended Reading

  • Baldwin, D.A. (1997) ‘The concept of security’, Review of International Studies, 23(1), pp. 5–26. Available at:
  • Betts, R.K. (1997) ‘Should Strategic Studies Survive?’, World Politics, 50(1), pp. 7–33. Available at:
  • Buzan, B. and Hansen, L. (2009) The Evolution of International Security Studies. 1st edn. Cambridge University Press. Available at:
  • Haas, E.B. (1953) ‘The Balance of Power: Prescription, Concept, or Propaganda?’, World Politics, 5(4), pp. 442–477. Available at:
  • Jervis, R. (2002) ‘Theories of War in an Era of Leading-Power Peace’, American Political Science Review, 96(1), pp. 1–14. Available at:
  • Johnson, D.D.P. and Tierney, D. (2011) ‘The Rubicon Theory of War: How the Path to Conflict Reaches the Point of No Return’, International Security, 36(1), pp. 7–40. Available at:
  • Kant, I. and Humphrey, T. (2003) To perpetual peace: a philosophical sketch. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Pub.
  • Kaufman, R.G. (1992) ‘“To Balance or To Bandwagon?” Alignment Decisions in 1930s Europe’, Security Studies, 1(3), pp. 417–447. Available at:
  • Kolodziej, E.A. (1992) ‘Renaissance in Security Studies? Caveat Lector!’, International Studies Quarterly, 36(4), p. 421. Available at:
  • Labs, E.J. (1992) ‘Do Weak States Bandwagon?’, Security Studies, 1(3), pp. 383–416. Available at:
  • Levy, J.S. (1998) ‘THE CAUSES OF WAR AND THE CONDITIONS OF PEACE’, Annual Review of Political Science, 1(1), pp. 139–165. Available at:
  • Lipson, M. (2007) ‘Peacekeeping: Organized Hypocrisy?’, European Journal of International Relations, 13(1), pp. 5–34. Available at:
  • Mitzen, J. and Schweller, R.L. (2011) ‘Knowing the Unknown Unknowns: Misplaced Certainty and the Onset of War’, Security Studies, 20(1), pp. 2–35. Available at:
  • Müller, H. (2013) ‘Security Cooperation’, in Carlsnaes, W., Risse, T., and Simmons, B., Handbook of International Relations. 1 Oliver’s Yard, 55 City Road, London EC1Y 1SP United Kingdom: SAGE Publications Ltd, pp. 607–634. Available at:
  • Paul, T.V. (2005) ‘Soft Balancing in the Age of U.S. Primacy’, International Security, 30(1), pp. 46–71. Available at:
  • Powell, R. (1996) ‘Stability and the Distribution of Power’, World Politics, 48(2), pp. 239–267. Available at:
  • Richmond, O.P. (2020) Peace in International Relations. 2nd edn. 2nd edition. | Abingdon, Oxon; New York, NY: Routledge, 2020. | Series: Routledge studies in peace and conflict resolution: Routledge. Available at:
  • Schroeder, P.W. (2004) ‘Did the Vienna Settlement Rest on a Balance of Power?’, in Schroeder, P. W., Systems, Stability, and Statecraft: Essays on the International History of Modern Europe. Edited by D. Wetzel, R. Jervis, and J. S. Levy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan US, pp. 37–57. Available at:
  • Snyder, J. (2002) ‘Anarchy and Culture: Insights from the Anthropology of War’, International Organization, 56(1), pp. 7–45. Available at:
  • Wagner, R.H. (1994) ‘Peace, War, and the Balance of Power’, American Political Science Review, 88(3), pp. 593–607. Available at:
  • Walt, S.M. (1991) ‘The Renaissance of Security Studies’, International Studies Quarterly, 35(2), p. 211. Available at:
  • Walter, B.F. (2013) ‘Civil Wars, Conflict Resolution, and Bargaining Theory’, in Carlsnaes, W., Risse, T., and Simmons, B., Handbook of International Relations. 1 Oliver’s Yard, 55 City Road, London EC1Y 1SP United Kingdom: SAGE Publications Ltd, pp. 656–672. Available at:

Lecture 6: Domestic Institutions

Core Required Reading

  1. Bättig, M.B. and Bernauer, T. (2009) ‘National Institutions and Global Public Goods: Are Democracies More Cooperative in Climate Change Policy?’, International Organization, 63(2), pp. 281–308. Available at:
  2. Fearon, J.D. (1994) ‘Domestic Political Audiences and the Escalation of International Disputes’, American Political Science Review, 88(3), pp. 577–592. Available at:
  3. Moravcsik, A. (1997) ‘Taking Preferences Seriously: A Liberal Theory of International Politics’, International Organization, 51(4), pp. 513–553. Available at:
  4. Owen, J.M. (1994) ‘How Liberalism Produces Democratic Peace’, International Security, 19(2), p. 87. Available at:
  5. Putnam, R.D. (1988) ‘Diplomacy and domestic politics: the logic of two-level games’, International Organization, 42(3), pp. 427–460. Available at:
  6. Schultz, K.A. (1999) ‘Do Democratic Institutions Constrain or Inform? Contrasting Two Institutional Perspectives on Democracy and War’, International Organization, 53(2), pp. 233–266. Available at:
  7. Snyder, J. and Borghard, E.D. (2011) ‘The Cost of Empty Threats: A Penny, Not a Pound’, American Political Science Review, 105(3), pp. 437–456. Available at:

Recommended Reading

  • Aldrich, J.H., Sullivan, J.L. and Borgida, E. (1989) ‘Foreign Affairs and Issue Voting: Do Presidential Candidates “Waltz Before a Blind Audience?”’, American Political Science Review, 83(1), pp. 123–141. Available at:
  • Allison, G.T. and Halperin, M.H. (1972) ‘Bureaucratic Politics: A Paradigm and Some Policy Implications’, World Politics, 24(S1), pp. 40–79. Available at:
  • Baum, M.A. (2006) Soft news goes to war: public opinion and American foreign policy in the new media age. 3. print., and 1. paperback print. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press (Princeton paperbacks).
  • Bendor, J. and Hammond, T.H. (1992) ‘Rethinking Allison’s Models’, American Political Science Review, 86(2), pp. 301–322. Available at:
  • Burzel, T.A. (1999) ‘Towards Convergence in Europe? Institutional Adaptation to Europeanization in Germany and Spain’, JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 37(4), pp. 573–596. Available at:
  • Colaresi, M. and Carey, S.C. (2008) ‘To Kill or to Protect: Security Forces, Domestic Institutions, and Genocide’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 52(1), pp. 39–67. Available at:
  • Conrad, C.R. (2011) ‘Constrained Concessions: Beneficent Dictatorial Responses to the Domestic Political Opposition1: Constrained Concessions’, International Studies Quarterly, 55(4), pp. 1167–1187. Available at:
  • Cowhey, P.F. (1993) ‘Domestic institutions and the credibility of international commitment: Japan and the United States’, International Organization, 47(2), pp. 299–326. Available at:
  • Farrell, H. and Newman, A.L. (2014) ‘Domestic Institutions beyond the Nation-State: Charting the New Interdependence Approach’, World Politics, 66(2), pp. 331–363. Available at:
  • Gelpi, C. and Feaver, P.D. (2002) ‘Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick? Veterans in the Political Elite and the American Use of Force’, American Political Science Review, 96(4), pp. 779–793. Available at:
  • Goldstein, J. (1996) ‘International law and domestic institutions: reconciling North American “unfair” trade laws’, International Organization, 50(4), pp. 541–564. Available at:
  • Koga, J. (2011) ‘Where Do Third Parties Intervene? Third Parties’ Domestic Institutions and Military Interventions in Civil Conflicts1: Where Do Third Parties Intervene?’, International Studies Quarterly, 55(4), pp. 1143–1166. Available at:
  • Lektzian, D. and Souva, M. (2003) ‘The Economic Peace Between Democracies: Economic Sanctions and Domestic Institutions’, Journal of Peace Research, 40(6), pp. 641–660. Available at:
  • Martin, L.L. (2000) Democratic commitments: legislatures and international cooperation. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.
  • Mor, B.D. (1997) ‘Peace Initiatives and Public Opinion: The Domestic Context of Conflict Resolution’, Journal of Peace Research, 34(2), pp. 197–215. Available at:
  • Owen, J.M. (2002) ‘The Foreign Imposition of Domestic Institutions’, International Organization, 56(2), pp. 375–409. Available at:
  • Pahre, R. (1997) ‘Endogenous Domestic Institutions in Two-Level Games and Parliamentary Oversight of the European Union’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 41(1), pp. 147–174. Available at:
  • Sanders, D. et al. (1987) ‘Government Popularity and the Falklands War: A Reassessment’, British Journal of Political Science, 17(3), pp. 281–313. Available at:
  • Warren, T.C. (2016) ‘Modeling the coevolution of international and domestic institutions: Alliances, democracy, and the complex path to peace’, Journal of Peace Research, 53(3), pp. 424–441. Available at:
  • Werner, S. and Lemke, D. (1997) ‘Opposites Do Not Attract: The Impact of Domestic Institutions, Power, and Prior Commitments on Alignment Choices’, International Studies Quarterly, 41(3), pp. 529–546. Available at:

Lecture 7: International Institutions and Norms

Core Required Reading

  1. Barnett, M.N. and Finnemore, M. (1999) ‘The Politics, Power, and Pathologies of International Organizations’, International Organization, 53(4), pp. 699–732. Available at:
  2. Cortell, A.P. and Davis, J.W. (1996) ‘How Do International Institutions Matter? The Domestic Impact of International Rules and Norms’, International Studies Quarterly, 40(4), p. 451. Available at:
  3. Downs, G.W., Rocke, D.M. and Barsoom, P.N. (1996) ‘Is the good news about compliance good news about cooperation?’, International Organization, 50(3), pp. 379–406. Available at:
  4. Koremenos, B., Lipson, C. and Snidal, D. (2001) ‘The Rational Design of International Institutions’, International Organization, 55(4), pp. 761–799. Available at:
  5. Mearsheimer, J.J. (1994) ‘The False Promise of International Institutions’, International Security, 19(3), p. 5. Available at:
  6. Meyer, J.W. et al. (1997) ‘World Society and the Nation‐State’, American Journal of Sociology, 103(1), pp. 144–181. Available at:
  7. Russett, B., Oneal, J.R. and Davis, D.R. (1998) ‘The Third Leg of the Kantian Tripod for Peace: International Organizations and Militarized Disputes, 1950–85’, International Organization, 52(3), pp. 441–467. Available at:

Recommended Reading

  • Buzan, B. (1993) ‘From international system to international society: structural realism and regime theory meet the English school’, International Organization, 47(3), pp. 327–352. Available at:
  • Der Derian, J. and Shapiro, M.J. (eds) (1989) International/intertextual relations: postmodern readings of world politics. Lexington, Mass: Lexington Books (Issues in world politics series).
  • Florini, A. (1996) ‘The Evolution of International Norms’, International Studies Quarterly, 40(3), p. 363. Available at:
  • Gehring, T. and Oberthür, S. (2009) ‘The Causal Mechanisms of Interaction between International Institutions’, European Journal of International Relations, 15(1), pp. 125–156. Available at:
  • Grieco, J.M. et al. (2011) ‘Let’s Get a Second Opinion: International Institutions and American Public Support for War1: Let’s Get a Second Opinion’, International Studies Quarterly, 55(2), pp. 563–583. Available at:
  • Gronau, J. and Schmidtke, H. (2016) ‘The quest for legitimacy in world politics – international institutions’ legitimation strategies’, Review of International Studies, 42(3), pp. 535–557. Available at:
  • Haftel, Y.Z. and Thompson, A. (2006) ‘The Independence of International Organizations: Concept and Applications’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 50(2), pp. 253–275. Available at:
  • Kelley, J. (2004) ‘International Actors on the Domestic Scene: Membership Conditionality and Socialization by International Institutions’, International Organization, 58(03). Available at:
  • Keohane, R.O. (1998) ‘International Institutions: Can Interdependence Work?’, Foreign Policy, (110), p. 82. Available at:
  • Krook, M.L. and True, J. (2012) ‘Rethinking the life cycles of international norms: The United Nations and the global promotion of gender equality’, European Journal of International Relations, 18(1), pp. 103–127. Available at:
  • Martin, L.L. and Simmons, B.A. (1998) ‘Theories and Empirical Studies of International Institutions’, International Organization, 52(4), pp. 729–757. Available at:
  • Nye, J.S. (2001) ‘Globalization’s Democratic Deficit: How to Make International Institutions More Accountable’, Foreign Affairs, 80(4), p. 2. Available at:
  • Panke, D. and Petersohn, U. (2012) ‘Why international norms disappear sometimes’, European Journal of International Relations, 18(4), pp. 719–742. Available at:
  • Parsons, C. (2002) ‘Showing Ideas as Causes: The Origins of the European Union’, International Organization, 56(1), pp. 47–84. Available at:
  • Ray, J.L. (1989) ‘The abolition of slavery and the end of international war’, International Organization, 43(3), pp. 405–439. Available at:
  • Reus-Smit, C. (1997) ‘The Constitutional Structure of International Society and the Nature of Fundamental Institutions’, International Organization, 51(4), pp. 555–589. Available at:
  • Risse, T. (2007) ‘Transnational Actors and World Politics’, in W.C. Zimmerli, M. Holzinger, and K. Richter (eds) Corporate Ethics and Corporate Governance. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 251–286. Available at:
  • Rosendorff, B.P. and Milner, H.V. (2001) ‘The Optimal Design of International Trade Institutions: Uncertainty and Escape’, International Organization, 55(4), pp. 829–857. Available at:
  • Ruggie, J.G. (1998) ‘What Makes the World Hang Together? Neo-utilitarianism and the Social Constructivist Challenge’, International Organization, 52(4), pp. 855–885. Available at:
  • Simmons, B.A. (2002) ‘Capacity, Commitment, and Compliance: International Institutions and Territorial Disputes’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 46(6), pp. 829–856. Available at:
  • Zürn, M. (2000) ‘Democratic Governance Beyond the Nation-State:: The EU and Other International Institutions’, European Journal of International Relations, 6(2), pp. 183–221. Available at:

Lecture 8: Globalization and Climate Change

Core Required Reading

  1. Brown, C. (2019) Understanding international relations. 5th edition. London: Macmillan international higher Education.
  • Global Governance
  • The Global Economy
  • Globalization
  • The International Politics of Identity
  1. Fischer, S. (2003) ‘Globalization and Its Challenges’, The American Economic Review, 93(2), pp. 1–30. Available at:
  2. Salehyan, I. (2008) ‘From Climate Change to Conflict? No Consensus Yet’, Journal of Peace Research, 45(3), pp. 315–326. Available at:
  3. Trombetta, M.J. (2008) ‘Environmental security and climate change: analysing the discourse’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 21(4), pp. 585–602. Available at:

Recommended Reading

  • Broz, J.L., Frieden, J. and Weymouth, S. (2021) ‘Populism in Place: The Economic Geography of the Globalization Backlash’, International Organization, 75(2), pp. 464–494. Available at:
  • Campbell, J.L. (2004) Institutional change and globalization. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.
  • Cerny, P.G. (1995) ‘Globalization and the changing logic of collective action’, International Organization, 49(4), pp. 595–625. Available at:
  • Colgan, J.D., Green, J.F. and Hale, T.N. (2021) ‘Asset Revaluation and the Existential Politics of Climate Change’, International Organization, 75(2), pp. 586–610. Available at:
  • Dimitrov, R.S. (2020) ‘Empty Institutions in Global Environmental Politics’, International Studies Review, 22(3), pp. 626–650. Available at:
  • Drezner, D.W. (2016) The system worked: how the world stopped another great depression. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Dupont, C., Oberthür, S. and von Homeyer, I. (2020) ‘The Covid-19 crisis: a critical juncture for EU climate policy development?’, Journal of European Integration, 42(8), pp. 1095–1110. Available at:
  • Evans, P. (1997) ‘The Eclipse of the State? Reflections on Stateness in an Era of Globalization’, World Politics, 50(1), pp. 62–87. Available at:
  • Farrell, H. and Newman, A.L. (2019) ‘Weaponized Interdependence: How Global Economic Networks Shape State Coercion’, International Security, 44(1), pp. 42–79. Available at:
  • Garrett, G. (1998) ‘Global Markets and National Politics: Collision Course or Virtuous Circle?’, International Organization, 52(4), pp. 787–824. Available at:
  • Hoffmann, M.J. (2005) Ozone depletion and climate change: constructing a global response. Albany: State University of New York Press (SUNY series in global politics).
  • Hoffmann, M.J. (2011) Climate governance at the crossroads: experimenting with a global response after Kyoto. New York Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Iversen, T. and Cusack, T.R. (2000) ‘The Causes of Welfare State Expansion: Deindustrialization or Globalization?’, World Politics, 52(3), pp. 313–349. Available at:
  • Jensen, N.M. (2003) ‘Democratic Governance and Multinational Corporations: Political Regimes and Inflows of Foreign Direct Investment’, International Organization, 57(3), pp. 587–616. Available at:
  • Keck, M.E. and Sikkink, K. (1998) Activists beyond borders: advocacy networks in international politics. Ithaca, N.Y: Cornell University Press.
  • Mann, M. (1997) ‘Has globalization ended the rise and rise of the nation-state?’, Review of International Political Economy, 4(3), pp. 472–496. Available at:
  • Mayer, B. (2021) ‘Climate Change Mitigation as an Obligation Under Human Rights Treaties?’, American Journal of International Law, 115(3), pp. 409–451. Available at:
  • Miller-Idriss, C. (2019) ‘The Global Dimensions of Populist Nationalism’, The International Spectator, 54(2), pp. 17–34. Available at:
  • Raustiala, K. (1997) ‘States, NGOs, and International Environmental Institutions’, International Studies Quarterly, 41(4), pp. 719–740. Available at:
  • Rosenau, J.N. (2003) Distant proximities: dynamics beyond globalization. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.
  • Rudra, N. (2002) ‘Globalization and the Decline of the Welfare State in Less-Developed Countries’, International Organization, 56(2), pp. 411–445. Available at:
  • Sapir, A. (2006) ‘Globalization and the Reform of European Social Models’, JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 44(2), pp. 369–390. Available at:
  • Schulze, K. (2021) ‘Policy Characteristics, Electoral Cycles, and the Partisan Politics of Climate Change’, Global Environmental Politics, 21(2), pp. 44–72. Available at:
  • Williamson, J.G. (1996) ‘Globalization, Convergence, and History’, The Journal of Economic History, 56(2), pp. 277–306. Available at:
  • Zürn, M. (2002) ‘From Interdependence to Globalization’, in Carlsnaes, W., Risse, T., and Simmons, B., Handbook of International Relations. 1 Oliver’s Yard, 55 City Road, London EC1Y 1SP United Kingdom: SAGE Publications Ltd, pp. 235–255. Available at:

Lecture 9: Cyber Threats, Artificial Intelligence, and Critical Infrastructure

Core Required Reading

  1. Eriksson, J. and Giacomello, G. (2006) ‘The Information Revolution, Security, and International Relations: (IR)relevant Theory?’, International Political Science Review, 27(3), pp. 221–244. Available at:
  2. Johnson, J. (2019) ‘Artificial intelligence & future warfare: implications for international security’, Defense & Security Analysis, 35(2), pp. 147–169. Available at:
  3. Lindsay, J.R. (2013) ‘Stuxnet and the Limits of Cyber Warfare’, Security Studies, 22(3), pp. 365–404. Available at:
  4. Maas, M.M. (2019) ‘How viable is international arms control for military artificial intelligence? Three lessons from nuclear weapons’, Contemporary Security Policy, 40(3), pp. 285–311. Available at:
  5. McGraw, G. (2013) ‘Cyber War is Inevitable (Unless We Build Security In)’, Journal of Strategic Studies, 36(1), pp. 109–119. Available at:
  6. Rabe, W. and Gippner, O. (2017) ‘Perceptions of China’s outward foreign direct investment in European critical infrastructure and strategic industries’, International Politics, 54(4), pp. 468–486. Available at:
  7. Valeriano, B. and Maness, R.C. (2018) ‘International Relations Theory and Cyber Security: Threats, Conflicts, and Ethics in an Emergent Domain’, in Valeriano, B. and Maness, R. C., The Oxford Handbook of International Political Theory. Edited by C. Brown and R. Eckersley. Oxford University Press, pp. 258–272. Available at:

Recommended Reading

  • Aradau, C. (2010) ‘Security That Matters: Critical Infrastructure and Objects of Protection’, Security Dialogue, 41(5), pp. 491–514. Available at:
  • Armenia, S. and Tsaples, G. (2018) ‘Individual Behavior as a Defense in the “War on Cyberterror”: A System Dynamics Approach’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 41(2), pp. 109–132. Available at:
  • Banerjee, S. (1986) ‘Reproduction of Social Structures: An Artificial Intelligence Model’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 30(2), pp. 221–252. Available at:
  • Boyle, P.J. and Speed, S.T. (2018) ‘From protection to coordinated preparedness: A genealogy of critical infrastructure in Canada’, Security Dialogue, 49(3), pp. 217–231. Available at:
  • Brassett, J. and Vaughan-Williams, N. (2015) ‘Security and the performative politics of resilience: Critical infrastructure protection and humanitarian emergency preparedness’, Security Dialogue, 46(1), pp. 32–50. Available at:
  • Brinkmann, A. and Bauer, K. (2016) ‘Food Security as Critical Infrastructure: The Importance of Safeguarding the Food Supply for Civil Security’, in A.J. Masys (ed.) Exploring the Security Landscape: Non-Traditional Security Challenges. Cham: Springer International Publishing (Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications), pp. 267–284. Available at:
  • Carr, M. (2016) ‘Public-private partnerships in national cyber-security strategies’, International Affairs, 92(1), pp. 43–62. Available at:
  • Dauvergne, P. (2021) ‘The globalization of artificial intelligence: consequences for the politics of environmentalism’, Globalizations, 18(2), pp. 285–299. Available at:
  • Garcia, D. (2018) ‘Lethal Artificial Intelligence and Change: The Future of International Peace and Security’, International Studies Review, 20(2), pp. 334–341. Available at:
  • Giacomello, G. (2004) ‘Bangs for the Buck: A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Cyberterrorism’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 27(5), pp. 387–408. Available at:
  • Gill, A.S. (2019) ‘Artificial Intelligence and International Security: The Long View’, Ethics & International Affairs, 33(02), pp. 169–179. Available at:
  • Kohlmann, E.F. (2006) ‘The Real Online Terrorist Threat’, Foreign Affairs, 85(5), p. 115. Available at:
  • Livingston, S. and Risse, M. (2019) ‘The Future Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Humans and Human Rights’, Ethics & International Affairs, 33(02), pp. 141–158. Available at:
  • Mori, S. (2018) ‘US Defense Innovation and Artificial Intelligence’, Asia-Pacific Review, 25(2), pp. 16–44. Available at:
  • O’Malley, S. (2019) ‘Assessing Threats to South Korea’s Undersea Communications Cable Infrastructure’, The Korean Journal of International Studies, 17(3), pp. 385–414. Available at:
  • Roff, H.M. (2019) ‘Artificial Intelligence: Power to the People’, Ethics & International Affairs, 33(02), pp. 127–140. Available at:
  • Sharikov, P. (2018) ‘Artificial intelligence, cyberattack, and nuclear weapons—A dangerous combination’, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 74(6), pp. 368–373. Available at:
  • Todorovic, B. (2018) ‘“The One Belt, One Road” Initiative Related Critical Infrastructure Protection at a Crossroads in Balkans’, in V.N. Cvetković (ed.) The New Silk Road: European Perspectives. Belgrade: Faculty of Security Studies, pp. 243–257. Available at:
  • Weimann, G. (2005) ‘Cyberterrorism: The Sum of All Fears?’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 28(2), pp. 129–149. Available at:
  • Zeng, J. (2020) ‘Artificial intelligence and China’s authoritarian governance’, International Affairs, 96(6), pp. 1441–1459. Available at:

Lecture 10: Nationalism, Populism, and Human Rights

Core Required Reading

  1. Bonikowski, B. et al. (2019) ‘Populism and nationalism in a comparative perspective: a scholarly exchange’, Nations and Nationalism, 25(1), pp. 58–81. Available at:
  2. De Mesquita, B.B. et al. (2005) ‘Thinking Inside the Box: A Closer Look at Democracy and Human Rights’, International Studies Quarterly, 49(3), pp. 439–458. Available at:
  3. Donnelly, J. (1998) ‘Human Rights: A New Standard of Civilization?’, International Affairs, 74(1), pp. 1–23. Available at:
  4. Fligstein, N., Polyakova, A. and Sandholtz, W. (2012) ‘European Integration, Nationalism and European Identity: European integration, nationalism and European identity’, JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 50, pp. 106–122. Available at:
  5. March, L. (2017) ‘Left and right populism compared: The British case’, The British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 19(2), pp. 282–303. Available at:
  6. Neumayer, E. (2005) ‘Do International Human Rights Treaties Improve Respect for Human Rights?’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49(6), pp. 925–953. Available at:
  7. Smith, A.D. (1996) ‘Culture, community and territory: the politics of ethnicity and nationalism’, International Affairs, 72(3), pp. 445–458. Available at:

Recommended Reading

  • Beitz, C.R. (2001) ‘Human Rights as a Common Concern’, American Political Science Review, 95(2), pp. 269–282. Available at:
  • Browning, C.S. (2019) ‘Brexit populism and fantasies of fulfilment’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 32(3), pp. 222–244. Available at:
  • Bugaric, B. (2008) ‘Populism, liberal democracy, and the rule of law in Central and Eastern Europe’, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 41(2), pp. 191–203. Available at:
  • Copelovitch, M. and Pevehouse, J.C.W. (2019) ‘International organizations in a new era of populist nationalism’, The Review of International Organizations, 14(2), pp. 169–186. Available at:
  • Darden, K. and Grzymala-Busse, A. (2006) ‘The Great Divide: Literacy, Nationalism, and the Communist Collapse’, World Politics, 59(1), pp. 83–115. Available at:
  • Destradi, S. and Plagemann, J. (2019) ‘Populism and International Relations: (Un)predictability, personalisation, and the reinforcement of existing trends in world politics’, Review of International Studies, 45(5), pp. 711–730. Available at:
  • Donnelly, J. (1986) ‘International human rights: a regime analysis’, International Organization, 40(3), pp. 599–642. Available at:
  • Evans, T. (2005) The politics of human rights: a global perspective. 2nd ed. London ; Ann Arbor, MI: Pluto Press (Human security in the global economy).
  • Forsythe, D.P. (2017) Human rights in international relations. Fourth edition. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
  • Gagnon, V.P. (1994) ‘Ethnic Nationalism and International Conflict: The Case of Serbia’, International Security, 19(3), p. 130. Available at:
  • Hafner-Burton, E.M. (2005) ‘Trading Human Rights: How Preferential Trade Agreements Influence Government Repression’, International Organization, 59(03). Available at:
  • Hafner-Burton, E.M. and Ron, J. (2009) ‘Seeing Double: Human Rights Impact through Qualitative and Quantitative Eyes’, World Politics, 61(2), pp. 360–401. Available at:
  • Howarth, D.R. (2008) ‘Ethos, Agonism and Populism: William Connolly and the Case for Radical Democracy’, The British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 10(2), pp. 171–193. Available at:
  • Karp, D.J. (2013) ‘The location of international practices: what is human rights practice?’, Review of International Studies, 39(4), pp. 969–992. Available at:
  • Kinnvall, C. (2019) ‘Populism, ontological insecurity and Hindutva: Modi and the masculinization of Indian politics’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 32(3), pp. 283–302. Available at:
  • Lasswell, H.D. (1954) ‘Nationalism and Social Communication: An Inquiry into the Foundations of Nationality. By Karl W. Deutsch. (Cambridge: The Technology Press, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; and New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Pp. x, 292. $5.00.)’, American Political Science Review, 48(2), pp. 554–556. Available at:
  • Lloyd, M. (2007) ‘(Women’s) human rights: paradoxes and possibilities’, Review of International Studies, 33(1), pp. 91–103. Available at:
  • Mihr, A. and Gibney, M. (2014) The SAGE Handbook of Human Rights. 1 Oliver’s Yard, 55 City Road, London EC1Y 1SP United Kingdom: SAGE Publications Ltd. Available at:
  • Moravcsik, A. (1995) ‘Explaining International Human Rights Regimes:: Liberal Theory and Western Europe’, European Journal of International Relations, 1(2), pp. 157–189. Available at:
  • Moyn, S. (2012) ‘Do human rights treaties make enough of a difference?’, in C. Gearty and C. Douzinas (eds) The Cambridge Companion to Human Rights Law. 1st edn. Cambridge University Press, pp. 329–347. Available at:
  • Plagemann, J. and Destradi, S. (2019) ‘Populism and Foreign Policy: The Case of India’, Foreign Policy Analysis, 15(2), pp. 283–301. Available at:
  • Schmitz, H.P. and Sikkink, K. (2013) ‘International Human Rights’, in Carlsnaes, W., Risse, T., and Simmons, B., Handbook of International Relations. 1 Oliver’s Yard, 55 City Road, London EC1Y 1SP United Kingdom: SAGE Publications Ltd, pp. 827–852. Available at:
  • Simmons, B.A. (2009) Mobilizing for Human Rights: International Law in Domestic Politics. 1st edn. Cambridge University Press. Available at:
  • Smith, A.D. (2000) ‘The `Sacred’ Dimension of Nationalism’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 29(3), pp. 791–814. Available at:
  • Vincent, R.J. (1986) Human rights and international relations. Cambridge [Cambridgeshire] ; New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Vreeland, J.R. (2008) ‘Political Institutions and Human Rights: Why Dictatorships Enter into the United Nations Convention Against Torture’, International Organization, 62(01). Available at:

Lecture 11: Geopolitics, China, and Multipolar World

Core Required Reading

  1. Marshall, T. and Scarlett, J. (2016) Prisoners of Geography: ten maps telling you everything you need to know about global politics. London: Elliott and Thompson Limited.
  2. Mearsheimer, J.J. (2010) ‘The Gathering Storm: China’s Challenge to US Power in Asia’, The Chinese Journal of International Politics, 3(4), pp. 381–396. Available at:
  3. Short, J.R. (2022) Geopolitics: making sense of a changing world. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.

Recommended Reading

  • Acharya, A. (2017) ‘After Liberal Hegemony: The Advent of a Multiplex World Order’, Ethics & International Affairs, 31(3), pp. 271–285. Available at:
  • Beckley, M. (2012) ‘China’s Century? Why America’s Edge Will Endure’, International Security, 36(3), pp. 41–78. Available at:
  • Breslin, S. (2013) ‘China and the global order: signalling threat or friendship?’, International Affairs, 89(3), pp. 615–634. Available at:
  • Buzan, B. (2010) ‘China in International Society: Is “Peaceful Rise” Possible?’, The Chinese Journal of International Politics, 3(1), pp. 5–36. Available at:
  • Christensen, T.J. (1999) ‘China, the U.S.-Japan Alliance, and the Security Dilemma in East Asia’, International Security, 23(4), pp. 49–80. Available at:
  • Goldstein, A. (2020) ‘China’s Grand Strategy under Xi Jinping: Reassurance, Reform, and Resistance’, International Security, 45(1), pp. 164–201. Available at:
  • Hurrell, A. (2006) ‘Hegemony, liberalism and global order: what space for would-be great powers?’, International Affairs, 82(1), pp. 1–19. Available at:
  • Johnston, A.I. (2013) ‘How New and Assertive Is China’s New Assertiveness?’, International Security, 37(4), pp. 7–48. Available at:
  • Joo, S.-H. and Lee, Y. (2018) ‘Putin and trilateral economic cooperation between Moscow, Seoul, and Pyongyang: motivation, feasibility, and Korean peace process’, Asia Europe Journal, 16(1), pp. 81–99. Available at:
  • Lake, D.A., Martin, L.L. and Risse, T. (2021) ‘Challenges to the Liberal Order: Reflections on International Organization’, International Organization, 75(2), pp. 225–257. Available at:
  • Li, M. (2020) ‘The Belt and Road Initiative: geo-economics and Indo-Pacific security competition’, International Affairs, 96(1), pp. 169–187. Available at:
  • Lieber, R.J. (2014) ‘The Rise of the BRICS and American primacy’, International Politics, 51(2), pp. 137–154. Available at:
  • Lloyd, M. and Dixon, C. (2022) ‘A future multipolar world’, Global Policy, 13(5), pp. 818–827. Available at:
  • Lukin, A. (2019) ‘Russian–Chinese Cooperation in Central Asia and the Idea of Greater Eurasia’, India Quarterly: A Journal of International Affairs, 75(1), pp. 1–14. Available at:
  • Makarychev, A. and Morozov, V. (2011) ‘Multilateralism, Multipolarity, and Beyond: A Menu of Russia’s Policy Strategies’, Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations, 17(3), pp. 353–373. Available at:
  • Mearsheimer, J.J. (2019) ‘Bound to Fail: The Rise and Fall of the Liberal International Order’, International Security, 43(4), pp. 7–50. Available at:
  • Petito, F. (2016) ‘Dialogue of Civilizations in a Multipolar World: Toward a Multicivilizational-Multiplex World Order’, International Studies Review, 18(1), pp. 78–91. Available at:
  • Rogelja, I. and Tsimonis, K. (2020) ‘Narrating the China Threat: Securitising Chinese Economic Presence in Europe’, The Chinese Journal of International Politics, 13(1), pp. 103–133. Available at:
  • Shambaugh, D. (2005) ‘China Engages Asia: Reshaping the Regional Order’, International Security, 29(3), pp. 64–99. Available at:
  • Shifrinson, J. (2020) ‘The rise of China, balance of power theory and US national security: Reasons for optimism?’, Journal of Strategic Studies, 43(2), pp. 175–216. Available at:
  • Taylor, B. (2020) ‘Is Australia’s Indo-Pacific strategy an illusion?’, International Affairs, 96(1), pp. 95–109. Available at:
  • Turcsányi, R. and Qiaoan, R. (2020) ‘Friends or foes? How diverging views of communist past undermine the China-CEE “16+1 platform”’, Asia Europe Journal, 18(3), pp. 397–412. Available at:
  • Turner, S. (2009) ‘Russia, China and a Multipolar World Order: The Danger in the Undefined’, Asian Perspective, 33(1), pp. 159–184. Available at:
  • Wang, Y. (2016) ‘Offensive for defensive: the belt and road initiative and China’s new grand strategy’, The Pacific Review, 29(3), pp. 455–463. Available at:
  • Woods, N. (2008) ‘Whose aid? Whose influence? China, emerging donors and the silent revolution in development assistance’, International Affairs, 84(6), pp. 1205–1221. Available at:

Required Students’ Skills

Read the course materials carefully and focus on the core and essential required readings that will greatly increase your level of knowledge.

Learn how to use search engines for academic articles, primarily Web of Science, JSTOR, SAGE Journals, and Google Scholar.

To pass an essay assignment with flying colours, you must master the Harvard citation style. Also, it is highly recommended to read the following publication about research methods and design to improve your essay score:

  • Lamont, C. and Boduszynski, M. (2020) Research methods in politics and international relations. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.

Throughout the course, students are also expected to familiarise themselves with leading academic journals to locate the latest articles, thereby connecting with the international relations academic community.